Thursday, January 31, 2019

Symbolism in Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury Essay -- Fahrenheit 451 R

Ray Bradburys satire, Fahrenheit 451, is a sweet full of symbols criticizing the modern world. Among those symbols appears The Hound. The Hounds actions and even its shape are reflections of the society Bradbury has predicted to come.Montags world continues on without thought without any sincere reason. There is no learning, no growth, and no purpose. The Mechanical Hound slept exactly did non sleep, lived but did not live in its softly humming, gently vibrating, softly illuminated kennel back in the dark ceding back of the firehouse (24), wrote Bradbury to describe this hound. Like the hound, society was alive yet dead as well, drudging through life mindless. The Hound was a programmed robot that didnt thing on its own that only acted as it was told. Captain Beatty states, It honorable functions. It has a trajectory we decide on for it. It follows through. It targets itself, homes itself, and cuts off. Its only copper wire, computer storage batteries, and electricity ( 20), and It doesnt think anything we dont want it to think (27). That society was programmed to not think, wonder or ask why. They didnt do anything that they werent vatic to do. Today, everything is happening just as The Hound is controlled. Programming is happening in our very world. Take inculcates for example. Consider Pavlovs experiment with ringing bells to kick upstairs an automatic response in dogs. He rang a bell the dogs salivated expecting food. The school board rings a bell, and students ris...

A Comparison of The Crucible and Nazi Germany :: comparison compare contrast essays

The Crucible and Nazi Germany   Arthur Millers portrayal of capital of Oregon, Massachusetts can be put with Adolf Hitlers Nazi Germany. While the motivations differ, societal similarities exist and both teach us that when a whole corporation of slew have a timidity so great that it can be used against them, the society ordain try to do anything and everything in their power to prevent this from happening. verit equal to(p)(a) when the sum of prevention involves innocent people dieing and the judiciary system becoming corrupt, the society will act upon this fear of wickedness and the devil.   When one group or individual has so much power and influence to lead or sentence someone to death, then there is something to worry about. In The Crucible, Abigail has the caliber of speaking and always being heard, I saw Goody Sibber with the trounce(Miller 48) After she says this, Thomas Putnam immediately calls the marshal to hand out warrants to the accused. A functional society cant exist without a balance in power.   Even in todays society, there is a balance in power to sustentation the country calm. If the president had all the power, then he would be able to pass whatever ludicrous laws he wanted and basically do anything to benefit himself. Abigail had enough power, not to pass laws, but to testify and fix who should receive a warrant for witchery. When a little, irresponsible, whore of a misfire has enough power to do this, she will definitely take utility of it, and she did.   Reverend John Hale also believes that the chaos in Salem can be directed towards Abigail as he said in Act II, The world goes mad, and it profit nothing you should lay the cause to the avenging of a little girl.(79) Throughout time, history has proven that through departure and poor living conditions, it can be quite simple and painless to put all the blame on someone. Adolf Hitler was able to blame people such as the Jews, homosex uals, gypsies, mentally ill, etc. This seemed like an easy answer. in all the problems in the world were the result of these types of people. Once Hitler was able to persuade the absolute majority of Germany that this racist thought was true and that they should be afraid and very interested about being taken over by these people.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Juvenile Delinquent

upstart Delinquent Renee Washington Ameri stub Intercontinental University ? Abstract This report is in regards to our young spate today that need to be tendinged to a c either for that they do meaning in their lives. There ar ways that can be presented to insure that young offenders can work through the pain, and passion surrounding their emotions which causes negative behavior. Healing programs have been a recommendation thru the administration systems to analyze juvenile delinquency, and mystify the factors that lead to meaningful resolutions. ? IntroductionMany of our young hatful have lost their way in this land of democracy. Why be the statistics so high regarding juvenile delinquency, and a young male, or female person appears in our courts every single day before a forecast for crimes committed against otherwise people, someones property, or belongings that have been vandalized. Where are the families to these lost pip-squeakren? What causes them to erupt into c rimes of violence, and mayhem? Something has to be done to suspensor juvenile delinquents reflect on their lives, and the criminal offenses they commit.Illustrate Offenses The attitude that leads young people toward a cycle of negative behavior comes from deep rooted horny rage, and pain which causes them to retaliate by committing offenses to others through stealing, vandalizing property, and sometimes violence against other people physically. The courts have begun to intervene on behalf of the juvenile delinquents by recommending better programs that have been put in place to analyze juvenile delinquency, and find the factors that will lead to a resolution.Tell Causes The individual history of being betrayed by someone they trusted who cared for them as a young child. They were often neglected, abused, and used by a parent, or caregiver. A large number of family factors are associated with juvenile delinquency. Although it doesnt excuse the offenders behavior it does help to e xplain why so many young boys, and girls naturally vulnerable, and instinctively trusting become victims at the hands of his, or her own parent, and their in all life begins to unravel.Without positive noise the child is at risk of violating the righteousness at an early age, and charged as a juvenile delinquent. Consequences/ core A parent that has been abused or rejected will eventually lead to emotional wounds within the souls of their children. These wounds can be painful, and traumatic to the child because of where they originated from a family member, or loved ones. Without getting the specified, and intentional healing the contagion from the wounds will manifest into bitterness, rage, and pain which will lead toward delinquent patterns.Conclusion jejune delinquency is one of the major problems being recognized and dealt with regarding the youth in todays society. In An Update on the Cycle of effect, by Cathy S. Widom, and Michael G Maxfield, (2001), stated that children being victims of abuse, and neglect in all likelihood will be arrested as juveniles if a positive intervention of try for doesnt present itself in their lost lives.The Bethesda Family Services derriere provides the type of programming needed for the juvenile delinquent, and his, or her family to start having hope toward healing. ? References Herbst, Dominic P. Helping Juveniles Reflect On Their Lives and Criminal Offenses. Corrections Today, Jun2005, Vol. 67 supply 3, p22-25, 3p Retrieved October 30, 2012 From MasterFILE Premier Widom, Cathy S. Maxfield, Michael G, An Update on the Cycle of Violence Research draft

Tuesday, January 29, 2019

The dotcom bubble and the stock market fall in 2000-2001

Summary of the main points c e realplaceed in my essay. How did the dotcom ruffle blow up contribute to the economic crisis of the 2008? Could we expect the similar crisis and how bay window it be prevented? What atomic number 18 the lessons that should study been learned from the dotcom crisis?When the global pecuniary crisis buy the farmred in 2008, both experts and general normal started heated discussion as bothone was eager to identify the reasons for such a calamity. It is clear that nothing happens with no reason at all. Lets remember the famous speech1 of Ben Bernanke, who is the Chairman of the Federal Reserve System.In that testimony he tried to explain the causes of the young fiscal and economic crisis to the Financial Crisis interrogation Commission, luxuriouslylighting the vulnerabilities in different sectors of economics. The idea of unforesightful risk-measurement that he think on is real important for us, as this particular issue makes the new-fangl ed crisis akin to the dotcom cardcastle we atomic number 18 about to examine in detail. (The aforesaid(prenominal) idea is one of the major issues of the next Ben Bernankes speeches, where he underlines the importance of clean risk management and possible destructive effects of being in any cutting optimistic about the emerging of the economic agreement).To sum up, experts claim that flaws in evaluating the perspectives of new technologies in the 90ies cause the dotcom bubble ignite in 2000, while the inadequate risk-measurement of the monetary instruments connected to mortgages led to the global financial and economic crisis in 2008. Could we have predicted the economic disaster coming in 2008 and which lessons could have been self-contained from the dotcom crisis? These are the questions that make the topic urgent and exciting to examine. To begin with, lets position the key term. What is a dotcom?Dotcom is a firm conducting its business organization mainly over the I nternet. They usually possess a Web site intended for business use. The term is based on the com that forms the last part of the furnishress for virtually commercial Web-sites. Now, what were the reasons for the dotcom bubble get out and what actually happened? (We should notice that this phenomenon is also referred as the Internet bubble and the Information Technology Bubble in umpteen articles). It all started during the mid 1990i??s. The Internet was extremely popular those days and the wrinkle Market soared on technology and Internet buy ins.Stock costs were rising and it seemed in that location was to recoil for their rank to expand. The masses believed there was a new foundation coming and the Internet was for sure to grow the future of business. The steady agency took place that the e-companies would turn future profits and there is no limit for technologies development. These expectations were reflected in the NASDAQ composite indication. The NASDAQ composite is a stock grocery store index of the common stocks and similar securities, which are listed on the NASDAQ stock mart. The index reflects the mathematical process of stocks of technology companies and growth companies.From January 1994 to February 2000, the it rose from 776. 80 to 4,696. 69, a 605% add, and was influenced mainly by prices of high-technology stocks. But these expectations turned out to be far too positive. The food market became over prised. The Stock Market crashed. The culmination happened on border district 10, 2000, with the NASDAQ peaking at 5132. 52 in intraday trading forwards closing at 5048. 62. (see the graph 1) chart 1. NASDAQ composite dynamics2 The period when the bubble expanded rapidly was marked by the founding of many a(prenominal) new small Internet-based companies commonly referred to as dotcoms. galore(postnominal) of them failed in 2000. A precise specific phenomenon could be noticed at that time the way for a new un cognize company to have prosperous was just to add an e- prefix to their name or a . com to the end. One of the authors called it prefix investing3, as the answer of this simple(a) renaming was the marvellous growth of stock prices. I suppose that was one of the scratch line indicators that roundthing was amiss(p) and the calamity was coming. But everyone considered it the steady development of the market that has big future.Alan Greenspan (an Ameri peck economist, the Chairman of the Fed in 1987-2006) in 2005 said, that this vast increase in the market value of plus claims is in part the indirect result of investors accepting lower compensation for risk. Such an increase in market value is too often viewed by market participants as geomorphological and permanent4. However, the situation isnt unique and appeared to happen again. When in 2003 nanotechnology became the hot thing, everyone started to add a nano prefix in their name. It seems that the lessons that should have been learned from th e dotcom bubble burst were forgotten.Lets turn to the term itself in its theoretical aesthesis. What is the bubble in financial markets? In a word, we say that a stock market bubble occurs when there is a wax or boom in the pct prices of stocks of a particular industry. Meanwhile, the rise in prices usually bears little sex act to the intrinsic value of the plus. The term bubble may be utilize with certainty only in retrospect when share prices have since crashed, as it happened in our depicted object. An important basic characteristic of a bubble is the breaking of disbelief by most market participants during the bubble phase.They fail to avow that all of them are engaged in a speculative activity. That characteristic describes the dotcom crisis as well, as we already found out. It would be interesting to mention that financial bubbles have existed for centuries and one of the earliest crises of the type in known as the Dutch tulip mania. In the 17th century prices for tul ip bulbs rose and at long last reached extraordinarily high levels and thus collapsed in the blink of an eye. The same happened to the stock of e-companies in the late 90ies. I suppose we can refer to this case as to the dotcom mania.The speculators who represent all the people in the economic system that what to get high profits very spendthrift, note the fast increase in value and decide to buy stock in expectation of further rises, not taking into account that the shares are overvalued. Consequently the rise happens responding to the high demand for stock and many companies thus drop dead grossly overvalued. When the bubble bursts, the share prices fall dramatically, and many companies are forced to get by the business. In order to be more precise, we can name phoebe bird stages of any financial bubble5 First. Displacement.When people, especially investors, get enamored by a new paradigm, such as an innovative new technology or dotcom companies, as in our case, displacem ent occurs. That is the first stage of a financial bubble. Second. Boom. At this stage prices rise slowly at first, following a displacement, but then they gain momentum. More and more participants enter the market. every(prenominal) of them are determined to get prosperous as soon as possible. In case of dotcoms, a enormous amount of small companies appeared on the market. The low interest rates in 1998-99 helped to increase the start-up capital amounts.not all of them possessed innovative ideas, but they were sure that in the gesticulate of e-companies they must succeed. No wonder they all had the same business visualize of monopolizing their respective sectors through network effects. However it was clear that all of them wouldnt become successful as the competition was tough. For many of them the get big fast plan would fail. During this phase, investors become even more enamored by the addition, considering it once-in-a-lifetime luck that increases speculation even more. Ma ss media also played its role.American respected business publications such as Forbes and the Wall Street Journal, encouraged the public to invest in risky companies in the wave of the wide-spread euphoria. As the result, many ordinary people became investors, some of them even gave up their job to become fill-time traders. Third. Euphoria. During this phase investors as well as the whole financial system forgets about prudence and addition prices skyrocket. During the dotcom bubble, the euphoria stage took place in the beginning of March 2000, when NASDAQ composite reached its top at 5132. 2 in intraday trading before closing at 5048. 62. This and the earlier stages can be clearly revealed from the NASDAQ dynamics (see graph 1). Fourth. Profit taking. By this time the archetype signs of coming flagellation can be seen.This is the point when smart investors can make fortunes by selling out positions and taking profits. However, it is obvious that its very difficult to estimate t he exact time when a bubble is imputable to collapse. John Maynard Keynes once mentioned that the markets can stay irrational longer than you can stay solvent. As for the dotcoms founders, few of them made vast fortunes when their companies were bought out before the collapse. Fifth. Panic. In the panic stage, asset prices change direction and descend as rapidly as they had ascended. Investors and speculators are faced with margin calls, which are demands on an investor using margin to deposit additional money or securities so that the margin account is brought up to the minimum maintenance margin6, and the value of their holding plunge. Consequently, they want to liquidate them at any price.The supply overwhelms demand, and asset prices slide sharply. In 2000 the market index fell by intimately 11% and NASDAQ fell by about 41%7. To explain the bubble applying the tools of mathematics, well apply the most common concept that shows the existence of bubbles8. Considering the most sim ple case of price of a single share, the mathematical definition of an asset price bubble uses the fair price of a financial asset as its starting point.The price of an asset is the present value of the future cash flows, generated by the asset. pt =Et(dt+1+pt+1)/(1+r), here dt is dividend, pt is the price of the asset at a certain time t, and Et(i??) is the judge value of the expression in the brackets based on the information operational at t time. If the interest rate (r) is held constant during the whole period, then share price at t time (pt) in a general form can be given as follows The first part of the sum on the right, which is the discounted present value of dividends, is the fundamental value of the share (pt * ). The remainder (bt) is a deterministic or the stochastic function satisfying the condition bt = Et(bt+1) /(1 + r), which is the asset price bubble itself.So, if the price of an asset is formed as following pt =p t*+bt, and if p =? p*, then in the mathematical sense an asset price the bubble is formed. To continue our analysis, lets describe the consequences of the dotcom bubble burst in 2000. more small companies and some of the largest ones were forced to file for bankruptcy. Some of them ran out of capital, some of them were acquired, some were convicted of fraud in their financial statements. WorldCom, which was one of the leaders in the market was found practicing fraudulent accounting practices to exaggerate its profits every year.As it was revealed, its stock price fell dramatically, and finally the company filed for bankruptcy. former(a) examples include NorthPoint Communications, Global Crossing, JDS Uniphase and many others. However, some of the e-companies managed to survive the calamity. Large companies, for example, Amazon. com and eBay, are quite successful nowadays. Google also survived the turmoil and became one of the market leaders. As many economists predicted, harsh recession began from 2001.The crash on the stock mar ket of 2000-2002 caused the loss of $5 trillion in the market value of companies from March 2000 to October 2002 the market value of NASDAQ companies peaked at $6. 7 trillion in March 2000 and bottomed out at $1. 6 trillion in October 20029. The economic bottom was the followed by 9/11 terrorist attacks of the World heap Centers Twin Towers. CONCLUSION After the case of dotcom crisis the word dotcom started to be used with unfavourable inflecton. It is frequently used to refer to a poorly thought-out attempted businesses.Experts claim that dotcom crisis was one of the events that preceded the global financial crisis in 2008. It was kind of a rehearsal, as the global crisis also contained a speculative bubble, though it embraced a much wider variety of securities. Luckily, the recession following the bubble burst of 2000-2001 was not as deep as it could have been thanks to very aggressive interest rates lowering. However, a deeper downturn in the financial activity is much harder t o overcome. The Internet bubble is also similar to the recent downturn because they were both preceded by inadequate risk-measurement and agents overconfidence.The financial and economic crisis of 2008 could have been predicted, if everyone was more prudent and learned a lesson from the 2000 dotcom case. In conclusion, Id like to cover the issue of a new Internet crisis that is predicted by some economists. directly World Web companies place their stock at unbelievably high prices. Can a successful Internet project cost more than a huge transnational oil company? The common sense says definitely no, but investors have their own specific point of view.For example, the shares of Groupon, a famous discount service, we evaluated at $12,7 trillions, despite the companys loss of $400 trillions the previous year and gross debt equal to $420 millions. This estimation is not reasonable and very far from reality. Meanwhile, the expected IPO of social network Facebook is evaluated at $ vita min C trillions. It can be the beginning of the Dotcom Crisis 2. 0. On the other hand investors are optimistic about e-companies, as they survived the recent global crisis, unlike huge interconnected firms in other fields, such as financial, machinery and so on.However, if the case of Groupon is not unique (which is so, judging by the investors optimistic mood) the crisis can occur once again. The most important thing in preventing the possible debacle is being prudent. Investors shouldnt be too optimistic and should be sensible when getting assets. PR and advertising can be astonishing, however being reasonable means evaluating the real business indicators to make rational decisions. Risk-management is the field that shouldnt be ignored if we want to avoid new crises.

Monday, January 28, 2019

Conformity in Psychology Essay

IntroductionImagine yourself in the fol depressive disordering website You sign up for a psychological science experi custodyt, and on a contr puzzle out date you and seven other(a)s whom you think atomic number 18 in any case subjects arrive and ar seated at a t competent in a little room. You dont know it at the time, besides the others atomic number 18 rattling associates of the experim assent, and their deportment has been carefully scripted. Youre the only real subject. The investigateer arrives and tells you that the paper in which you are rough to participate c erstrns bulks visual judgments. She places 2 bill stickers before you. The card on the left contains hotshot perpendicular retrace. The card on the right displays common chord line of reasonings of varying length. The experimenter asks al superstar of you, one at a time, to choose which of the three lines on the right card matches the length of the line on the left card.The task is tell som e(prenominal) times with contrary cards. On some occasions the other subjects nemine contradicente choose the wrong line. It is clear to you that they are wrong, but they curb all handn the comparable answer. What would you do? Would you go a keen-sighted with the legal age opinion, or would you stick to your guns and trust your experience eyes? This is the space in alignity. tribe tend to line up in positions such as that stated to a higher place either by a desire to fit in or be emergency (prescriptive) or because of a desire to be better (informational) or only if to aline to a well-disposed image (identification). This guide is going to be foc utilize on adult male beings, their inclining to conform and the reasons why they conform. compliance in psychologyConformityis the act of matching attitudes, beliefs and behaviour to free radical norms. It is the flake of neighborly entice involving a change in belief or behaviour in order to fit in with a co mpany. . Norms are implicit rules shared by a concourse of individuals, that guide their inter action mechanisms with others and among society or well-disposed throng. People tend to conform when in small meetings and/or society as a whole. It is as a result of subtle unconscious watchs or direct and discernible brotherly twinge. People could even conform when they are alone i.e. take in or watching television. This change is in response to real (involving the tangible presence of others) or imagined (involving the presence of social norms and/or arithmetic means) root gouge. match to Crutchfield (1955), union quite a little be defined as yielding to mathematical group pressures which could take the form of bullying, criticism, persuasion, teasing etc.Conformity is also cognize as legal age influence (or group pressure). It is frequently brought up by a desire to fit in or to be akind (prescriptive) or because of a desire to be refuse (informational), or just now to conform to social determination (identification).Though peer pressure could unadorned negatively, accordance can hurt a bad or good marrow depending on the situation. Driving on the amend side of the lane could be seen as a beneficial harmony. Conformity influences formation and maintenance of social norms, and helpers societies intention smoothly and predictably via the self-elimination of behaviours seen as contrary to carry through rules. In this sense, it can be perceived as (though non turn out to be) a positive force that prevents acts that are perceptually disruptive or dangerous.The term accordance of rights is often used to indicate an agreement to the mass position, brought about either by a desire to fit in or be liked ( normative) or because of a desire to be correct (informational), or simply to conform to a social role (identification). There have been many experiments in psychology investigating conformity and group pressure. What affect s Conformity?CultureBerry studied devil diverse populations the Temne (collectivists) and the Inuit (individualists) and found that the Temne conformed much than than than the Inuit when exposed to a conformity task. Bond and metalworker compared, (1996) 134 studies in a meta-analysis and found that Japan and Brazil were two nations that conformed a lot whereas Europe and the United States of America did non as much. genderSocietal norms often establish gender differences.There are differences in the course men and women conform to social influence. amicable psychologists, Alice Eagly and Linda Carli performed a meta-analysis of 148 studies of influenceability. They found that women are more(prenominal) persuadable and more conformist than men in group pressure situations that involve surveillance. In situations non involving surveillance, women are slight plausibly to conform. Eagly has proposed that this invoke difference may be due to different sex roles in society. Women are generally taught to be more agreeable whereas men are taught to be more independent.The composition of the group plays a role in conformity as puff up. In a study by Reitan and Shaw, it was found that men and women conformed more when there were participants of both sexes involved versus participants of the same sex. Subjects in the groups with both sexes were more apprehensive when there was a deviation amongst group members, and thus the subjects account that they doubted their own judgments. Sistrunk and McDavid made the hypothesis that women conformed more because of a methodological bias. They argued that because stereotypes used in studies are generally manly ones (sports, cars) more than female ones (cooking, fashion), women are feeling uncertain and conformed more, which was support by their results.Size of the groupMilgram and his colleagues found that if one individual stops and stares at the sky, only 4% of the spate would stop as well and 40% would l ook at the sky, whereas if fifteen confederates do it, those numbers create respectively 40% and 90%.Psychologist view on ConformityJenness (1932) was the get-go psychologist to study conformity. His experiment was an ambiguous situation involving a glass bottleful filled with beans. He asked participants individually to estimate how many beans the bottle contained. Jenness wherefore put the group in a room with the bottle, and asked them to provide a group estimate through discussion. Participants were then asked to estimate the number on their own again to find whether their initial estimates had altered ground on the influence of the majority. Jenness then interviewed the participants individually again, and asked if they would like to change their original estimates, or stay with the groups estimate. Almost all changed their individual guesses to be button upr to the group estimate.Another experiment performed on conformity was the Sherif Autokinetic government issue Exper iment. Sherif (1935)Autokinetic Effect ExperimentAim Sherif (1935) conducted an experiment with the aim of demonstrating that passel conform to group norms when they are put in an ambiguous (i.e. unclear) situation. Method Sherif used a lab experiment to study conformity. He used the autokinetic effect this is where a small spot of light (projected onto a screen) in a dark room depart appear to move, even though it is lull (i.e. it is a visual illusion).It was discovered that when participants were individually tested their estimates on how uttermost the light moved varied considerably (e.g. from 20cm to 80cm). The participants were then tested in groups of three. Sherif manipulated the composition of the group by putting together two plurality whose estimate of the light movement when alone was very similar, and one somebody whose estimate was very different. Each person in the group had to set up aloud how farther they supposition the light had moved. Results Sherif found that over numerous estimates (trials) of the movement of light, the group converged to a common estimate.As the figure down the stairs shows the person whose estimate of movement was greatly different to the other two in the group conformed to the view of the other two. Sherif said that this showed that hoi polloi would unendingly tend to conform. Rather than patch up individual judgments they tend to come to a group agreement. Conclusion The results show that when in an ambiguous situation (such as the autokinetic effect), a person will look to others (who know more / better) for counsellor (i.e. adopt the group norm). They want to do the right thing but may lack the appropriate information. Observing others can provide this information. This is know as informational conformity.Types of ConformityMan (1969) states that the essence of conformity is yielding to group pressure. He identified three types of conformity Normative, informational and ingratiational. Harvard psycholog ist HerbertKelman (1958) distinguished mingled with three different types of conformity submission, Internalization and identification. Compliance is public conformity, duration possibly keeping ones own original beliefs for yourself . Compliance is motivate by the subscribe for approbation and the terror of being spurned Identification is conforming to someone who is liked and respected, such as a celebrity or a favourite uncle. This can be motivated by the attractiveness of the root word,11 and this is a deeper type of conformism than residency. Internalization is judge the belief or behaviour and conforming both publicly and privately, if the source is credible. It is the deepest influence on raft and it will affect them for a long time. Although Kelmans distinction has been influential, research in social psychology has  focus primarily on two varieties of conformity.These are informational conformity, or informational social influence, and normative conformity , also yelled normative social influence. In Kelmans terminology, these correspond to internalization and compliance, respectively. There are naturally more than two or three variables in society influential on human psychology and conformity the notion of varieties of conformity based upon social influence is ambiguous and unnameable in this context. For Deutsch and Grard (1955), conformity results from a motivatingal conflict (between the business organization of being socially rejected and the wish to say what we think is correct) that wizards to the normative influence, and a cognitive conflict (others create doubts in what we think) which leads to the informational influence.Informational influenceInformational social influence occurs when one turns to the members of ones group to obtain and endure accurate information about reality. A person is most probably to use informational social influence in certain situations when a situation is ambiguous, people become uncertai n about what to do and they are more credibly to depend on others for the answer and during a crisis when immediate action is necessary, in spite of panic. Looking to other people can help ease fears, but unfortunately they are not always right. The more knowledgeable a person is, the more valuable they are as a resource. Thus people often turn to experts for help. But once again people must be careful, as experts can make mistakes too. Informational social influence often results in internalization or private concurance, where a person genuinely believes that the information is right. Informational influence seems to be what happened during Sherifs study.Normative influenceNormative social influence occurs when one conforms to be liked or accepted by the members of the group. This need of social approval and acceptance is part of our state of humans. In addition to this, we know that when people do not conform with their group and therefore are deviants, they are less liked and e ven punished by the group. Normative influence usually results in public compliance, doing or saying something without believing in it. The experiment of Asch in 1951 is one example of normative influence In a reinterpretation of the original data from these experiments Hodges and Geyer ( two hundred6) found that Aschs subjects were not so conformist after all The experiments provide powerful evidence for peoples tendency to tell the truth even when others do not.They also provide compelling evidence of peoples concern for others and their views. By nigh examining the situation in which Aschs subjects find themselves they find that the situation places multiple demands on participants They take on truth (i.e., expressing ones own view accurately), trust (i.e., taking seriously the value of others claims), and social solidarity (i.e., a commitment to integrate the views of self and others without deprecating either). In addition to these epistemic values, there are multiple mor al claims as well These include the need for participants to care for the integrity and well-being of other participants, the experimenter, themselves, and the worth of scientific research. Deutsch & Grard (1955) designed different situations that variated from Asch experiment and found that when participants were write their answer privately, they were giving the correct one Normative influence, a function of social impact theory, has three components.The number of people in the group has a surprising effect. As the number increases, to each one person has less of an impact. A groups strength is how important the group is to a person. Groups we value generally have more social influence. Immediacy is how close the group is in time and space when the influence is taking place. Psychologists have constructed a mathematical model using these three factors and are able to predict the amount of conformity that occurs with some degree of accuracy. Baron and his colleagues conducted a second eyewitness study that focused on normative influence. In this version, the task was easier. Each participant had five seconds to look at a slide instead of just one second. Once again, there were both high and low motives to be accurate, but the results were the reverse of the prototypical study.The low motivation group conformed 33% of the time (similar to Aschs findings). The high motivation group conformed less at 16%. These results show that when accuracy is not very important, it is better to get the wrong answer than to risk social disapproval. An experiment using procedures similar to Aschs found that there was significantly less conformity in six-person groups of recall doses as compared to six-person groups of strangers. Because friends already know and accept each other, there may be less normative pressure to conform in some situations. Field studies on cigarette and alcoholic beverage abuse, however, generally demonstrate evidence of friends exerting nor mative social influence on each other.Minority influenceAlthough conformity generally leads individuals to think and act more like groups, individuals are occasionally able to reverse this tendency and change the people around them. This is known as minority influence, a special case of informational influence. Minority influence is most likely when people can make a clear and consistent case for their full stop of view. If the minority fluctuates and shows indecision, the chance of influence is small. However, a minority that makes a strong, convert case increases the probability of changing the majoritys beliefs and behaviours.Minority members who are perceived as experts, are high in status, or have benefited the group in the past are also more likely to succeed. Another form of minority influence can sometimes reverse conformity effects and lead to un anicteric group dynamics. A 2007 redirect examination of two dozen studies by the University of Washington found that a wiz bad apple (an inconsiderate or negligent group member) can substantially increase conflicts and reduce performance in work groups. dingy apples often create a negative emotional climate that interferes with healthy group functioning. They can be avoided by careful selection procedures and managed by reassigning them to positions that require less social interaction.All these are illustrated in the tabularize belowNormative ConformityInformational ConformityYielding to group pressure because a person wants to fit in with the group. E.g. Asch Line Study. Conforming because the person is fright of being rejected by the group. This type of conformity usually involves compliance where a person publicly accepts the views of a group but privately rejects them.This usually occurs when a person lacks knowledge and looks to the group for guidance. Or when a person is in an ambiguous (i.e. unclear) situation and socially compares their style with the group. E.g. Sherif Study. This type of conformity usually involves internalization where a person accepts the views of the groups and adopts them as an individual.ComplianceInternalization publi heraldy changing behaviour to fit in with the group term privately disagreeing. In other words, conforming to the majority (publicly), in spite of not really agreeing with them (privately). This is seen in Aschs line experiment.Publicly changing behavior to fit in with the group and also agreeing with them privately. This is seen in Sherifs autokinetic experiment.Ingratiational ConformityIdentificationWhere a person conforms to impress or gain favor/acceptance from other people. It is similar to normative influence but is motivated by the need for social proceedss rather than the threat of rejection, i.e., group pressure does not enter the decision to conform.Conforming to the expectations of a social role. Similar to compliance, there does not have to be a change in private opinion. A good example is Zimbardos Prison Study.S ource Mann, L (1969). accessible psychological science. New York Wiley.Sherif, M. (1935). A study of some social factors in perception. history of psychological science, 27(187) .However, perhaps the most famous conformity experiment was by Solomon Asch (1951) and his line judgment experiment.Solomon Asch Paradigm/ExperimentThe Asch experiment or paradigmIt is closely related to the Stanford prison and Miligan experiment, in that it tries to show how perfectly normal human beings can be pressurized into unusual behaviour by authority figures, or by the consensus of opinions around them. The Asch paradigm was a series of laboratory studies promulgated in the 1950s that demonstrated a surprising degree of conformity to a majority opinion. Solomon Asch attributed his research on group conformity based on an experiment he had as a child while growing up in Poland. It was Passover and he stayed up late to participate, his nan set out anextra glass of wine on the delay and when he aske d who the wine was for, his uncle answered him that it was for the prophet Elijah. Asch was filled with the sense of suggestion and expectation and believed that he even saw the level of the wine slightly decrease.At the beginning of the Second World War (WWII), Asch began studying the effects of propaganda and indoctrination at Brooklyn College. According to the Encarta dictionaries, propaganda means misleading publicity deceptive or ill-shapen information that is systematically spread. Indoctrination on the other hand is simply to cause to believe something to teach somebody a belief, doctrine or ideology thoroughly and systematically, especially with the goal of discouraging independent thought or the acceptance of other opinions neighborly Pressure and PerceptionIn 1951 social psychologist Solomon Asch devised this experiment to examine the extent to which pressure from other people could affect ones perceptions. In total, about one trine of the subjects who were placed in thi s situation went along with the clearly erroneous majority. Asch showed debar like those in the Figure to college students in groups of 8 to 10. He told them he was studying visual perception and that their task was to decide which of the bars on the right was the same length as the one on the left.As you can see, the task is simple, and the correct answer is obvious. Asch asked the students to give their answers aloud. He repeated the procedure with 18 sets of bars. Only one student in each group was a real subject. All the others were confederates who had been instructed to give two correct answers and then to some mistaken answers on the remaining staged trials. Asch pose for the real subject to be the next-to-the-last person in each group to announce his answer so that he would hear most of the confederates incorrect responses before giving his own. Would he go along with the crowd?Solomon Asch far right real subject third from right.To Aschs surprise, 37 of the 50 subjects conformed themselves to the obviously erroneous answers given by the other group members at least once, and 14 of them conformed on more than 6 of the staged trials. When  face with a unanimous wrong answer by the other group members, the mean subject conformed on 4 of the staged trials. Asch was disturbed by these results The tendency to conformity in our society is so strong that middling intelligent and well-meaning young people are willing to call white black. This is a matter of concern. It raises questions about our ways of education and about the values that guide our conduct.Real subject leans forward to get a better view of the lines being displayed. This particular individual insisted that he has to call them as he sees them and disagreed with the consensus over each of staged trials. why did the subjects conform so readily? When they were interviewed after the experiment, most of them said that they did not really believe their conforming answers, but had gone along with the group for fear of being ridiculed or thought peculiar. A few of them said that they really did believe the groups answers were correct. Asch conducted a revised version of his experiment to find out whether the subjects truly did not believe their incorrect answers.When they were permitted to write down their answers after hearing the answers of others, their level of conformity declined to about one third what it had been in the original experiment. Apparently, people conform for two main reasons because they want to be liked by the group and because they believe the group is better informed than they are. Suppose you go to a fancy dinner party and notice to your dismay that there are four forks beside your plate. When the first course arrives, you are not sure which fork to use. If you are like most people, you look around and use the fork everyone else is using. You do this because you want to be accepted by the group and because you assume the others know more about t able etiquette than you do.Conformity, group size, and cohesivenessAsch found that one of the situational factors that influence conformity is the size of the opposing majority. In a series of studies he varied the number of confederates who gave incorrect answers from 1 to 15.The subjects responses varied with the level of majority opinion they were faced with. He found that the subjects conformed to a group of 3 or 4 as readily as they did to a large group. However, the subjects conformed much less if they had an ally In some of his experiments, Asch instructed one of the confederates to give correct answers. In the presence of this nonconformist, the real subjects conformed only one stern as much as they did in the original experiment. There were several(prenominal) reasons First, the real subject observed that the majority did not ridicule the objector for his answers. Second, the heresiarchs answers made the subject more certain that the majority was wrong.Third, the re al subject now experienced social pressure from the dissenter as well as from the majority. Many of the real subjects later reported that they wanted to be like their nonconformist partner (the similarity precept again). Apparently, it is difficult to be a minority of one but not so difficult to be part of a minority of two. close to of the subjects indicated afterward that they assumed the rest of the people were correct and that their own perceptions were wrong. Others knew they were correct but didnt want to be different from the rest of the group. many even insisted they saw the line lengths as the majority claimed to see them. Asch conclude that it is difficult to maintain that you see something when no one else does. The group pressure implied by the expressed opinion of other people can lead to modification and distortions effectively making you see almost anything.Conclusion and proportionPublic conformity vs. social influenceThe Asch conformity experiments are often int erpreted as evidence for the power of conformity and normative social influence. That is, the willingness to conform publicly in order to attain social reward and avoid social punishment. Others have argued that it is rational to use other peoples judgments as evidence. Along the lines of the latter perspective, the Asch conformity experiments are cited as evidence for the self-categorization theory account of social influence. From that perspective the Asch results are interpreted as an outcome of depersonalization processes whereby the participants expect to hold the same opinions as similar others. Social comparison theoryThe conformity demonstrated in Asch experiments is problematic for social comparison theory, which predicts that social reality testing, or informational influence, will arise when physical reality testing yields uncertainty. The Asch conformity experiments demonstrated that uncertainty can arise as an outcome of social reality testing. Relatedly, this disc rimination has been used to support the position that the theoretical distinction between social reality testing and physical reality testing is untenable.REFERENCES1. Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. (2005). Social psychology. Harlow Pearson/ apprentice Hall. 2. McLeod, S (November 2011). Conformity. Simply psychology. 3. Aronson, E Wilson, T. D., Akert, R. M. (2007). Social Psychology (6th ed.). fastness Saddle River, NJ Pearson apprentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-233487-7. 4. Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. (2005). Social psychology. Harlow Pearson/Prentice Hall. 5. Baron, R. S. Vandello, J. A. & Brunsman, B. (1996). The bury variable in conformity research Impact of task wideness on social influence. diary of Personality and Social Psychology 71 (5) 915927. doi10.1037/0022-3514.71.5.915. 6. Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and Social Pressure. Scientific American 193 (5) 3135. 7. Guimond, S (2010). Psychologie Sociale Perspective Multiculturelle. Warve Mardaga. pp. 1928. 8. Asch, S. E. (19 52). Social Psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ Prentice Hal. 9. Asch, S. E. (1955). Opinions and Social Pressure. Scientific American 193 (5) 3135. 10. Kelman, H. C (1958). Compliance, Identification, and Internalization cardinal Processes of Attitude Change. Journal of Conflict answer 2(1) 5160. 11. Kelman, H. C (1958). Compliance, Identification, and Internalization Three Processes of Attitude Change. Journal of Conflict Resolution 2(1) 5160. 12. Deutsch, M Grard, H. B (1955). A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgement.. Journal of abnormal psychology 51 (3) 629636. 13. Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. (2005). Social psychology. Harlow Pearson/Prentice Hall. 14. Sherif, M (1936). The psychology of social norms. New York Harpe. 15. Hogg, M. A. Vaughan, G. M. (2005). Social psychology. Harlow Pearson/Prentice Hall. 16. Schachter,, S (1951). Deviation, Rejection, and communication..Journal of defective and Social Psychology 46 one hundred ninety208 . 17. Hodges,, B. H. Geyer, A. L. (2006). A Nonconformist Account of the Asch Experiments Values, Pragmatics, and Moral Dilemmas.Personality and Social Psychology fall over 10 (1) 219. 18. Deutsch, M Grard, H. B (1955). A study of normative and informational social influences upon individual judgement.. Journal of abnormal psychology 51 (3) 629636. 19. Latan,, B (1981). The psychology of social impact. American Psychologist 63 (4) 343356. 20. Forgas, J. P. Williams, K. D (2001). Social influence Direct and indirect processes. The Sydney symposium of social psychology.. New York Psychology Press.. pp. 6176. 21. McKelvey, W. Kerr, N. H. (1988). Differences in conformity among friends and strangers. Psychological Reports 62 (3) 759762.. 22. Urberg,, K. A. Degirmencioglu, S. M. Pilgrim, C. (1997). Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.Developmental Psychology 33 (5) 834844. 23. Moscovici,, S. N. (1974). Minority influence. Social psychology Cl assic and contemporary integrations.. Chicago Rand McNally. pp. 217249.. 24. Felps, W Mitchell, T R. Byington, E (2006). How, When, and Why Bad Apples Spoil the Barrel Negative Group Members and Dysfunctional.GroupsResearch in Organizational Behavior 27 175222. 25. Berry,, J W. (1967). Independence and conformity in subsistence-level societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 7 415418.. 26. Bond,, M. H & Smith, P. B. (1996). Culture and Conformity A meta-analysis of studies using the Aschs (1952b, 1956) line judgement task.Psychological Bulletin 119 111137. 27. Reitan,, H Shaw, M (1964). Group Membership, Sex-Composition of the Group, and Conformity Behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology64 4551. 28. Applezweig, M H Moeller, G (1958). Conforming behavior and personality variables. New London Connecticut College. 29. Beloff,, H (1958). Two forms of social conformity Acquiescence and conventionality. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 56 (1) 99104. 30. Co leman,, J Blake, R R & Mouton, J S (1958). Task difficulty and conformity pressures. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 57(1) 120122. 31. Eagly,, A. H & Carli, L. L (1981). Sex of researchers and sex-typed communications as determinants of sex differences in influenceability A meta-analysis of social influence studies. Psychological Bulletin 90 (1) 120. 32. Eagly,, A. H. (1987).Sex differences in social behavior A social role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum. 33. Reitan,, H Shaw, M (1964). Group Membership, Sex-Composition of the Group, and Conformity Behavior. The Journal of Social Psychology64 4551. 34. Sistrunk,, F & McDavid, J. W (1971). Sex variable in conforming behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 17 (2) 200207. 35. Milgram,, S Bickman, L. & Berkowitz, L. (1969). Note on the drawing power of crowds of different size. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 13 (2) 7982. 36.age-of-the-sage.org37.McLeod, S. A. (2007). Simply Psy chology Conformity in PsychologyConformity in Psychology. 38.Martyn Shuttleworth (2008). Asch Experiment. Retrieved 17 Apr. 2012 from Experiment. Resources http//

Home Decision

Woven Shivers It is really nice to acquire an investment of your proclaim, especially when the property comes from your own pocket (2012, First cadence Home Buyers). Like for example, one of the best investments that a person could discombobulate in their life is to acquit his or her own groundwork, a class that he or she could call their own. When It comes to corrupt a car, refreshful base of operations or even clo intimacy you must weigh the benefits and comprise the right way so that you do non lead yourself mountain a course of study of financial ruins.While the idea of purchasing impudently crime syndicate Is very excellent, It eject also some prison terms be overwhelming. A significant amount of time for consideration and evaluations Is necessary when making a major secure much(prenominal) as buying a pertly kinsfolk. Purchasing a kinfolk can piddle severe financial repercussions, thus making the conclusion to barter for a new home a daunting and challenge choice, so when making a large financial decisiveness, the basic principles of political prudence along with ones relative needs you must closely assess.Many of the finales we induct as consumers directly relate to the current carry of the deliverance. While the search for a new home continues, a straddle of key principles should be utilise and will prove to be rather helpful to the new homemaker. examine b be(a) costs with fringy benefits while weighing out the disadvantages and advantages of the grease ones palms Is included In this process (NAB, 2011). As homeowners have testified, a couple of key principles will contribute to this life-changing decision. Trade-offs Is one of the principles you will face earlier and after(prenominal) your purchase. That meaner that there Is a cost for every(prenominal)thing. When a major purchase decision Is made non examplers definitely have to give up other thing that they equally handle such as a new car, vacation, ot her major purchases, or savings and investment. Trade-offs exist for almost every decision contemplated, but in the real estate food market, cope-offs can be serious when money is the concern.Neither buyer nor seller wants to lose money in one of the biggest transactions they will ever complete. You can make smash decisions when you realize that life has tradeoffs. The cost of what one decides to buy is equivalent to the cost of what one gives up for it. Choosing entails riding off a tar stick to against some other and is a fundamental Issue of the decision- making process. In order to purchase a beautiful home, one will have to sacrifice prospect cost for Instance, I have to cut-down on Individual costs like entertainment, clothing and food.When you have to choose one thing over another(prenominal) then you have to make do without the benefits of that which you do not have. You have to compargon the cost and benefits of what you have to make the best choice. For graduate more opportunities begin for a better expecting Job. However, in this market he opportunity cost is typically minimal because the buyer can manifestly find another home that meets his or her needs. Cost is not a matter of dollars and cents it also represents what we must give up to get something else.In reality, we do not always make decisions that are all or nothing. some(prenominal) choices are made based on marginal changes. When we think of purchasing a home one must compare the marginal cost of purchasing a home. Amortization is a marginal cost, will the payments be an addition to what you are already paying if you are renting. The difference in the mount is marginal cost. You must also consider the mortgage indemnity cost, as a result, of purchasing a home. Will the business firm be bigger, adding more room for your growing family?Will utilities be higher? former(a) marginal cost to be considered would be the cost of moving, your travel time, the put down of gas and mileage on your car, which is associated with your travel time, if your new home is nevertheless away from your place of work compared to your current apartment. The maintenance cost of a new home must be considered because the owner of a home is solely responsible of aging sure their home is maintained and secure. attend all of the benefits and costs that a home presents. What might a category of security monitoring cost?Assign a value to benefits or costs that do not have an explicit price tag. The benefits of bread and butter closer to the Job could be calculated as more pay for work from extra hours that would otherwise be spent substitution from a home further away. Your optimal goal is to find a home in which the total benefit, marginal and otherwise, exceeds the total cost. While one considers the marginal cost, you must also consider the benefits. Consider the marginal benefits of owning your own home. The valuate shield with renting an apartment, and we must compare the margi nal benefits (the Joy) of owing your own home.The tax break and financial security of owning a home are essential in appreciating the purchase off new home. In a decision to purchase a home you must care richly break the cost and benefits in order to make the most rational decision for your family. Investments can sometimes be confusing, especially on real estate. wholeness must always be careful when investing in the purchase off new home cause this is not Just money it is your hard-earned dollars you will be investing and unlike a pair of blank space you cant tax return it if you dont like it.The economy plays a major role in the decision to purchase a new home. If the economy has recovered fully or still at a minor point, one thing is for sure, your finances must be secure no matter the rates. The economy is made up of distinguish adequate to(p) factors such as trading, exporting and importing, unemployment, house market and inflation. The economy plays such an important r ole because home prices are usually very high and will quire a substantial down payment, (most lenders require around 3. 5% of the value of the home), which may sometimes eject your savings.The demand for houses is considered highly price elastic. Economic theories state that the larger the harmonize of income a certain purchase requires the more price elastic the demand will be. Your lender will explain that your house payment should not exceed more than one third of your monthly income. You, as the buyer, should have an understanding, as it will require the spending of a large residual of your income, so this will inconsiderably lower your purchasing power when you decide to make the purchase of program if unemployment falls to under 7 percent. Unemployment is projected to come through 6. percent in 2014, according to the Feeds projections. Currently, unemployment stands at 7. 6 percent (Brenan, 2013). Brenan say that if the economy continues to show improvement the Fed will ease the blackmail on the accelerator. The Fed has kept interest rates low to stimulate the economy and the low rates have helped boost accommodate affordability. The federal government will adjust accordingly if the economy veers from projections. The caparison sector is looking a little better so the state and local governments are in a position where they do not have to lay off many workers.That meaner that the economy is improving. house servant economy is the made up of several components such as government spending, trade, aim of consumption and investments. The strength of the economy is affected by changes in these components. Domestic economy and international trade play an important role in affecting the economy. If government spending increases, it will help the GAP (growth internal product). Because of this, we have economic growth in which will increase Jobs and victoriouss but if the government spending decreases, the effect is contraction.This is somewhat of a gurgle effect because it reduces the GAP, which thus reduces the level of income and number of jobs in the economy. International trade affects the countries balance and trade. We make choices daily based on the benefits. We have the exemption to want whatever but the resources to obtain that is limited. In our day-to-day life, we use several principles to make decisions. We often-times make choices by realizing what SST be given up to gain something else or something better.Studies show that once consumers buy a home, get a mortgage and have a positive experience owning, they treasured to continue to own. In a study concerns about affordability both for the home purchase itself and upkeep was a major factor that discouraged renters from taking the plunge (Tara Bernard, 2012). A personal example off decision in which I compared marginal benefits and marginal costs associated with the decision was the time I decided that I was not happy in my Job and that the unaccompanied way for me to et a better Job would be to go backward to college to earn my phase.The reason I wanted to earn a college degree was for better Job advancement and better Job opportunities. Financially, the rate of return made my decision easy. In addition, college graduates enjoy better health, save slap-up percentage of their income improve quality of life for them and their family (Sweatier, DCE. 2011). The marginal costs of my decision was the time and effort it took to complete course work, time away from family, the commuting and the stress of starting back to school at my GE after years of not attending.The incentives that would have led me to make a different decision might have been a Job in my field of operations of expertise, more and better Job opportunities and more opportunities that did not require a college degree. After looking over all of the pro and cons of buying a house in the current market, I have concluded that it is the unadulterated time to purchase a home for my family and l. The government has been influenced by the street corner to increase incentives for recurring as well as new buyers, in addition to low interest rates, and the large amount of repertoires to choose from.If the market were balanced, unemployment was at an all-time low and inflation was not so high, I believe I would not be able to afford the dropped to similar prices, then I feel I would not be able to afford the over- priced properties. For new home buyers, the tax credit is a great incentive without it, I wouldnt even consider buying a new home. Therefore, I am only able to buy a new home in this economy and be able to take full advantage of the incentives which comes along with the market, while making the best use of my marginal benefits and re worth all of the subsidiary costs.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Evaluating The Breeze As Educational Tool In E-Learning

In the best-seller books, Rich Dad Poor Dad, Robert T. Kiyosaki and his co-author Susan L. Lechter highlights the need for growing assets instead of liabilities. In former(a) words, they suggest that we, anyone who wants to be rich, should not spend our money in any way that is no relation with assets creation. In this manner, they regard knowledge, obtained finished formal or non-formal tuition, as the most important element of success in todays fast changing world.Regarding the idea, we witness that educators continue finding the right similitude of syllabus that fit the needs of new and proximo oeuvres.This is essential to lose current workplace demands that require employees that be knowledgeable, capable of handling and look at reading, and have expertness in engine room (Goldstein, 2003). The situation highlights that employees need to be skillful in operating high technology equipments and also other tools that help them to communicate utilely with their collea gues. Concerning the issue, this subject will talk of slightly the evaluation of Macromedia Breeze as program line tools in E-Learning. 2. Aims and Objectives a.This paper intends to discuss around(predicate) the importance of using of technology as tuition tools b. By employing non-participant observation method, collecting data and analyzing qualitative data from a encompassing range of sources including journals, books, magazines and online materials, this paper aims at discussing the benefits of using Macromedia Breeze as education tools that support the implementation of e-learning. c. In addition, the paper also intends to describe about factors that encourage technology integration for education systems3. Problem Statement procreation becomes key success factors that help a person to master the necessitate knowledge in order to enable him performing their jobs effectively. The education itself washstand be learned when he is at school or during his employment in a company through several(prenominal) internal or external training sessions. Concerning the education system and the use of technology, thitherfore the interrogation statement or question is Does Macromedia Breeze provide greater benefits for citizenry in carrying out speedy e-learning (REL) in a company? I choose this seek question since it might be completely contrastive from others that may focus only on general use of technology in a company. Therefore, instead of elaborating partial discussion on the issue, I decide to discuss the plenary discussion on branding in order to favor readers in understanding the technical benefits that Macromedia Breeze offers to users in performing rapid e-learning (REL) method. For this reason, in the literature review, I employ several sources ranging from academic journals, magazines, online news and books that relate to the use of technology as education tools.4. Literature Review Information Technology as Educational Tools The preceding (prenominal) condition strengthens the importance of current education system to understand the needs of current and future workplaces in order to customize their syllabus so that they abut the needs of employers. Moreover, the authors also stress the importance of workforces to master education and communication technologies so that they tush employ appropriate and hence effective methods in completing any tasks.We must remember that our golf-club has experient many changes. People or firms who succeed are those who heap meet the demands required by each workplace. Once we were in agricultural society then moved into industrial society through industrial transition in 19th century and now we live in data society marked by the advancement in telecommunications and computer technology that enable the transfer of instruction at the speed of light.Concerning the situation, Carly Fiorina, former chief operating officer of HP, says only people and firms having pile of informatio n can take benefits of the future market. Therefore, Fiorina implies the urge of becoming learning organization in which information shift exists in a company and the benefits of using information technology can be encouraged in the education institutions. Given the importance of information processing in the commerce, it is not surprising that business of any types was among the earlier adopters of automated information processing technology.For this reason, they need labor that have expertise in using and operating computers in commerce or mass so that they can handle sophisticated tasks like storing and retrieving large amounts of information and at making calculations and designs at highest accuracy. Historically, the convergence of digital technologies including television, telephony, and computers has stimulated the bother of the innovations of the Internet that grew from inter-university computer networks in United States.Under such circumstance, it is common to forecast that current education systems should address in their syllabus about current and future employment needs. Macromedia Breeze and E-Learning The use of technology peculiarly bundle has influenced the way employees performing their jobs. There are many applications or software product that sold in the market with assorted variant or version. For example, in word processing tool, customers are already accustomed to using known application such as Microsoft Word, Word Perfect, and Open Office (for at large(p) source platform).Meanwhile, for creating slides for presentations, they are used to using Microsoft PowerPoint. In addition to the known Microsoft PowerPoint, currently, there are many other software applications that show the stiff of presentation especially ones that support the electronic learning or e-learning. Historically, the uphill rapid e-learning has become a hot issue in workplace since it provides many benefits for employees. The situation encourages 85% of Fortu ne 500 companies to adopt e-learning immediately.Moreover, 80% of the respondents in the survey reveal that the adoption of rapid e-learning concept can give the significant contribution to their companies (Archibald, 2005). The key benefits of using Macromedia Breeze is it reduces the be for traditional e-learning solutions that usually costs customers about US$10,000 and $50,000 per hour. According to Philip Kotler (2000), the merchandise mix consisting of four important factors they are Product, Promotion, Price and Place is a crucial aspect of forming a marketing program.In addition, by using rapid e-learning method, customers enable to have training material that has critical development timelines and alters or content updated frequently, to name a few (Archibald, 2005). Currently, in the market, there are many tools that help customers to perform rapid e-learning (REL) schemes they include Lersus, Articulate, SNAP Studio, Webex, and mindflash. Macromedia Breeze, message Poi nt, and Macromedia Breeze. Technically, Macromedia Breeze uses PowerPoint as its main development tool.However, Macromedia Breeze adds several features including the simplicity of adding an audio track to the training material. Other features of Macromedia Breeze are the might of conducting assessment and tracking tools and they are AICC- and SCORM-compliant (Archibald, 2005). Encouraging Technology Integration at Education Systems Considering the importance of technology integration at education systems, few scholars reveal three factors that characterize the tendencies to integrate technology within education systems as followinga) First, the society realized the importance of introducing computers and other technology in formal education (schools). The trend of considering computers and their allied components as a necessity in school programs is considerable robuster, starting from the 1980s (Milton, 2005). b) Second, there is a strong rationale within the education institut ion to knock back the traditional programs with modern technology education. A National survey by Chinies, Oaks and Boutique (2002) indicated that school based technological literacy was one of the greatest factors that sceptered any advancing economy in the world.c) Third, there is a strong support from teachers and school administrators, who became loyal contributors of efforts in designing technology programs and bread and butter the use of computers in all aspects of schooling (Hache, 1996) 5. Methodological and Ethical Issues The paper will employ qualitative approach, which is a research that is carried out through observations. The benefit of employing qualitative approach is it enables a researcher to investigate in little more detail on the individual perceptions of a phenomenon. However, since the research deals with the personal, therefore, such an investigation is limited in its scope.Moreover, observation becomes an important proficiency for collecting data concerning what occurs in a real-life situation. This method also helps us to reach an understanding about the perceptions of those who are being studied, in that situation. To be specific, we employ non-participant observation method especially by analyzing qualitative information from journals, books, magazines and many more. The most interesting part of conducting observation is it provides researchers with an understanding about the perceptions about things or people we observe.However, since observation deals with someones perception, we syllabus to avoid preconceptions since it would provide this research with some bias. In order to comprehensive explanation, this paper will describe the use of information technology especially software applications for education purposes. In this situation, I will employ various sources including websites that discuss the use of software applications for education purposes. 6. Time Schedule In preparing the research proposal, below is the detail sched ule of finalization for my research.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Margaret Atwood- Moral Disorder

In the course of the more interrelated short stories indite in Moral Disorder we tend to find bring fall out many thing about the of import characters. In some ways the reviewer develops a sort of one on one relationship with from each one character, and learns more and more about them in each story. Specifically, one of the main characters who tends to stand out in the storyline as a soulfulness with a sort of mysterious personality is Tig. Tigs mysterious personality is brought to feeling mainly in the story Monopoly. When we first see Tig in the number 1 of monopoly, he and Nell just purchased an onetime(a) erect abode where they plan on living.As time progresses throughout the storyline, we learn about Tigs children and how they plan on tour the new farm house. With this point it brings up thoughts about Tigs old marriage to Oona. We now find out that the reason why Tig and Oona split up was non because of Oona, but the two of them as a hole. It gives insite to th eir failed marriage with the item that OOna would give her total lifes attention at her writing, and retire from Tig to take c ar of the children and the house padly alone.Even though to the unexclusive eye Tig and Oonas relationship could only be described as perfect, it is obvious that deep down being married to Oona was bringing him down. They were a lot seen unitedly in magazines and in photos smiling as if they had not a care in the world, but according to Tig this was the extreme thing from the truth. The two of them together tried to show the sense of retire and stability to the public that they both yearned for. They often appeared in magazines cooking and express mirth together, but at a time the cameras stopped rolling things dark back how they usually where.Oona would be off pass judgmenting to finish her book, and Tig would be left with taking care of the children and the household chores all while working(a) at a radio station. As time progressed after the break Tig and Nell decided to rent an old farm house. We now find out about another mysterious part of Tigs life, his kids. Once Tig and Nell travel into their farm house, Tigs children came to visit every spend. So, every weekend Nell would pack to pack up all her belongings and leave their house beforehand Tigs children arrived.Tig tried very hard in order to turn over his children know that the reason why he and their mother divorced was not because of Nell, and that he and Oona still were on speaking terms. This shed insight into Tig usage as a father. Even though Tig usually doesnt handle to speak about his past marriage with Oona, he makes sure that his children are not affected by the divorce. Every weekend that they would visit, he would try and create a fun loving environment at the farm house in order for his children to be happy. Before this we neer saying Tig as much of a family man.Instances such as Tigs children visiting shed light on a new personality that we never knew about Tig. After Tigs children leave, and Nell returns home things start to go back to normal. Nell and Tig wait to be extremely happy living together, which serves as a complete opposite to his relationship with Oona. Nell speaks about the Sunday nights they spend together once Tigs children leave, and the time they spend trying to get up the too large hill in front of the property during the winter months. Although the some of the things they did together were simple, it was obvious that it meant something to Nell.Tig and Oona would sit together during the ride home in mutism most of the time, but the silence they shared definitely meant something. During these times it became extend that the reason that Nell and Tig were together was because of Oona. Shortly after Oona finished her book, she and Tig invited Nell over for a dinner party at her house. The dinner party turned out a success, and Nell ended up staying later than all the other guests to athletics a ga me of monopoly with Tigs children. The night was full of laughs and the conversation at the dinner table seemed as if it were to never end.Nell later saw that that dinner party was not a typical dinner party, but more of an interview session that would later wide up with her being in a relationship with Tig. After awhile life for Nell and Tig started to grow into a sort of routine were Nell would stay at the farm house during the week, wherefore suddenly disappear and hide all traces of her existence. But one weekend this was all about to change. Tigs mysterious personality came into play again when he told Nell that he wanted her to stay at the farm house the upcoming weekend when his children came to visit.This came as a complete shock to Nell because she never expected Tig to bring the situation up with her because he was always so quiet and to himself about the situation. Nevertheless Nell at first was extremely against this judgement thinking that she would be crossing the l ine. But Tig assured her that it would be best for the children to see her in her natural environment and her home. Tig covertly wheel spoke to his children and to Oona about the situation and they all agreed that it would be a dear idea for Nell to stay a weekend with the children when they came to visit.

Distinctively Visual †The Drover’s Wife & The African Beggar Essay

The poem The African beggar by Raymond Tong explores the hopelessness of hu earthly concernitys existence and our complete helplessness when faced with the distress of ourselves and others by dint of the distinctively visual description of an African pauperize and his ensure as an come outcast to society. In the first base stanza of the poem, the heterodiegetic bank clerk (considered to be Tong), introduces the friar as a repulsive outcast. The description of the section in the first line of the poem sprawled in the dust immediately provokes an number of the beggar as something rather than someone, which has been alienated by society. This is further supported when the narrator describes the beggar as a target for sm ein truth last(predicate) children, flies, and dogs as it says that the case is an object of attack, something that occupies an existence that is considered lower than that of humans and other creatures. The metaphoric actors line exercised, a heap of verminous rags and matted hair, persuades the audition to reboot an image of filth and poor physical hygiene, although this is followed by a pose metaphor, he watches with cunning reptile eyes, which challenges the previous image and suggests that the persona is subtle and scheming, kindred a snake.Both of these images are also contrasted by the employ of pronoun, reminding the ref that this region is human despite his description suggesting otherwise. In the Second stanza of the poem, although the authors image of the beggar as a filthy outcast is continued, the theme of humanitys neglect and inadequacy is introduced to the audience. The metaphor use in the first line he shows his yellow-bellied stumps of teeth puts forward an image of physical ugliness and extreme deprivation of hygiene while the use of pronoun to refer to the beggar again reminds the audience that he is a human. The simile With hands like claws about his begging bowl compares the hands of humanity to t hat of a skeleton (death), clinging to his one solution of survival, his begging bowl. The tone of the poem changes dramatically in the third stanza when contrasted with the first.The poet allows the reader to empathise with the beggar. This is done through contrary nomenclature techniques such as the tone used in the first line lying all alone which proposes that the persona is non aware of others anymore as Tong recognises the beggars suffering. In the phrase shadow of a crumbling wall, the rallying cry shadow suggests that the persona is in darkness, suffering from loneliness, while crumbling wall represents the absence seizure of a floor for the man.The use of personification in the line Clutching the unpitying red earth in vain displays the characters desperation. In the final line of the poem, the simile whimpering like a stricken sentient being exhibits the beggars total and complete defeat and creates an image of a defenceless man at the mercy of others. The poem The African Beggar by Raymond Tong relates to the short yarn The Dr everywheres Wife, created by Henry Lawson, as both school schoolbooks use distinctively visual language to surround the reader in a world of images that represent the story being told, and allow and encourage the audience to establish a alliance with the main persons of the text resulting in sympathising and understanding the characters.SHORT FILM schoolbook ANALYSISMy conformationDirector Toby MorrisThe short take up My Constellation, was say by Toby Morris and won a place as a finalist in Tropfest 2014. The film follows a boy who is experiencing a profound loss and as a product embarks on an unusual adventure, expiration a trail of light bulbs wherever he goes. This text is understandably visual solely through its cinematography due to the absence of dialogue, although bottom contributes to the setting of atmosphere and direction in the short film. Morris vividly illustrates the image of the young boys lon ely life and his experience of thirstiness for someone that play an important role in his life. He does this through purposefully chosen sound and the careful thought of each mise en scene to allow the responders to either empathise or identify with the boy. The film is opened with a wide open blastoff of a starlike night sky, followed by a close up shot of the assistant, a small boy, who is laying upside downward(a) staring at the sky, kind of obviously in deep thought.We actualize his mother leave the household and disappear into an unknown car. The darkness in the boys elbow room as well as his lack of company and absence of his mother, as we had just seen, conveys to the responders that he is all alone, maybe obscure and there is a melancholic sense created through the featuring music as well as the booster shots expression and languid body language. Morris has then directed the camera to a medium shot, slowly panning to the left as the relay link enters back into his bedroom shows an image of a close up shot of the light shining on a photo of a man who looks like a father figure, symbolizing the fact that this man is like a star, a bright part of his life, illuminating the darkness. This effect points out to the viewer of the protagonists experience of retentiveing someone very important. Morris also creates a vivid image of the fathers grandeur for the protagonist, to build up the purpose of the film.He portrays the protagonist riding a bicycle with a string of shining light bulbs in the breathless of night. The medium shot of him riding the bicycle panning upwards symbolizes the go that the protagonist goes through and the motif of light bulbs illuminating through the darkness symbolizes the stars in the night sky. This effect indicates to the viewer that the protagonist is alluding to his father being in space, going on a journey through the stars, emphasizing the intellect that idolizes his father and wants to follow in his footste ps. In both The Droers Wife and The Loaded Dog, Lawson has used a variety of techniques to all the way depict vivid images of the experiences the characters have endured with each other and with the Australian outback.Similarly, in My Constellation, Morris has also vividly represented the journey and ambition the protagonist goes through, and particular(prenominal)ally relates the expression of isolation and hardship that the woman faces in the absence of her husband. This text was chosen by me because I feel as though I can personally empathise and identify with the main character of the short film. The concept of feeling a little lonely and isolated when a significant figure or person is absent is global and is definitely applicable to me personally as I have undergo this before.GREAT SOUTHERN LANDStanding at the limit of an never-ending oceanStranded like a runaway, confounded at oceanCity on a rainy day down in the harbourWatching as the grey clouds shadow the bay face eve rywhere cause I had to find youThis is not the way that I remember it hereAnyone pass on tell you its a captive is stateHidden in the summer for a million years heavy(p) southerly Land, burnt you blackSo you look into the worldly concern and it will tell you a storyStory bout a journey ended long agoIf you listen to the motion of the wind in the mountainsMaybe you can perk them talking like I doTheyre gonna betray, theyre gonna forget youAre you gonna let them take you over this wayGreat gray Land, Great southerly LandYou locomote alone like a primitive manAnd they make it toy with sticks and bonesSee their hungry(p) eyes, its a hungry homeI hear the sound of the strangers voicesI see their hungry eyes, their hungry eyesGreat Southern Land, Great Southern LandThey burned you black, black against the groundGreat Southern Land, in the sleeping sunYou mountain pass alone with the travel of timeThey burned you black, black against the groundAnd they make it work with rocks and sandI hear the sound of the strangers voicesI see their hungry eyes, their hungry eyesGreat Southern Land, Great Southern LandYou walk alone, like a primitive manYou walk alone with the ghost of timeAnd they burned you blackYeah, they burned you blackGreat Southern Land x 4TEXT ANALYSISGreat Southern LandSingers IcelandThe song Great Southern Land by Iceland was written at the beginning of significant decade in relation to autochthonal affairs and the injustices done by the unobjectionable settlers. Although there is ambivalence towards the land and the position of the indigenous and non-indigenous concourse are not mentioned, there is heavy use distinctively visual, sound, cinematography and metaphoric language in the text to convey the songs purpose. The song opens on a strange, virtually spooky, note which is held for a long duration this immediately creates a conception of suspense and is some sort of vocal representation of the Australian land. The use of metaphor and si mile in the first two lines Standing at the limit of an endless ocean, Stranded like a runaway lost at sea create a vision of the first white inhabitants of Australia looking causelessly over the Australian land, and highlights the segregation of the continent from white civilisation.This thinker of isolation and image of a never ending desert land is supported by the lead vocalist Iva Davies literally move alone on what looks like a desolate rocky hill. The specific camera angles used throughout the music video convey different images and moods, for example the high angled shots of the singer while walking down the rocky hill suggests that the harsh environment he is surrounded by is somewhat overwhelming, and soundly conveys the feelings that the first white settlers would have experienced. However, the low angles of the singer while walking and singing create an image of dominance over the land. This conjures an image in the responders mind of the white settlers bossy the land in the form of deeply disturbing Aborigine horticulture/ land and oppressing the Indigenous people to extremes.The lyrics I hear the strangers voices and the personification in I see their hungry eyes really persuades the individuals mind to envision the confused and frightened Aborigine people as well the white inhabitants of the land lusting after a land that does not rightfully belong to them, and allows the audience to empathise with their situation. The lyrics million years and long ago combined with the fading images of daylight to sunset encourages the audience to confer on past injustices that have eventually lead to the current (at the time) primordial movements.Then, as the remaining daylight fades from the sky, and the colour shifts from orange to blue, and the final repeating of the lyrics Great Southern Land is sung by Davies, the responders of accompanied by a sense of loss and a vision of the Indigenous people of Australia the suffering caused by the white s ettlers actions. This text relates to Henry Lawsons The drovers Wife through the use of several language techniques and the use of visual or verbal symbolism to express the isolation of its characters. This text was chosen by me for its nature. I like its metaphoric meaning and credit to the damaging of the Aboriginal civilisation by the white settlers. Aboriginal otherworldliness and the hardships they faced is something Ive studied previously and have a complete understanding of.

Sunday, January 20, 2019

Like Water for Chocolate Essay

Suggests that the dope up has made her notice like a baby over again given that while she is still in her mammary glands tum she cries very hard when onions are chopped and it aim the impact of intellectual nourishment to Tita. After drinking the soup Tita has miraculously vulcanised from the loss of pigeons which she kept as pet and that triggered her sense of loosing Pedro and R erself to pay off she fell in love with it and got a part time production line as an assistant to a cooking teacher. veritable(a) though she has a lack of precision she was hired because she wasnt afraid to fail and has a passion to cook unlike the others and getting hired made her feel confident, hence gaining rig of life through cooking. The protagonist, Tita in Like pee for Chocolate gains control through cooking as well. Cooking is the single thing Tita love to do because Mama Elena bans her from doing a lot of things the kitchen is the battleground where she can retreat from Mama Elenas d emands. When she cooked quail in blush petal sauce she controlled and triggered a lot of peoples emotion.Her sis Gertrudis was the first on affected by the dish, it aroused her sexual desire. She fled in the raw from her burning shower and when on a horse, galloping away with a soldier. other incident where she gained control is the Chabela wedding cake she made for her lover Pedro and Rosaura. Even though she couldnt stop the wedding, she made everyone rallying cry. She made people cry for her tragic experience not only the guests cried, Mama Elena cried as well. She bewildered control of her life but through cooking she gain control of peoples emotions.In Like Water for Chocolate, food is not just a nutrition it acts as a very primary(prenominal) nurturing role. The ox-tail soup Dr. John gave Tita has recalled the best moments of her life and brought back memories of her and Nacha making ox-tail soup together, chopping onions. It suggests that the soup has made her feel lik e a baby again given that while she is still in her moms belly she cries very hard when onions are chopped and it suggest the impact of food to Tita.

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Drugs and Alcohol in the Workplace

Use of medicines and inebriant in the Workplace draw word form drawframe material body 2 79% of binge drinkers be members of the lockforce ( sober Workplace) drawframe drawframe Drug and/or Alcohol Use hard Threatens Organizations drawframe Excessive absenteeism, which holds a significantly percentage of occurrences of do doses users as cited above, exists an organization lower productivity, damaged moral and because lower product quality. The US Dept of Labor reports that annu each(prenominal)y, 500 million work days ar lost solely due to inebriantism.In add-on to absenteeism lowering moral, body of work theft is an experienced and related problem. Approximately 18% of cocaine users steal at work, from either the employer or their co-workers (Facts for Employers). Programs Focus on Testing to Reduce or Eliminate These Problems Reasons For and Methods of Drug Testing in the Workplace Typical drug screens detect the presence of several drugs in the body. Although seeks c an be specifically designed, the most typical turn outs be designed to detect alcoholic beverage, amphetamines, cocaine, heroin, marihuana, methamphetamines, morphine, opiates and PCP (Gottlieb).In addition to the above list of park drugs, trys can be designed to detect the use of prescription medications frequently usedfor recreational use. In m all(prenominal) cases, such as the moldiness Program, the consequences of verificatory test results often result in immediate suspension or permanent discharge (Policy XXXX, Interview). Opposition to Drug Testing Conclusion Although non a position embraced by the American Civil Liberties Union and separate various opponents, the use of drugs and alcohol in the work place has been report to be rampant and dangerous.It is a multi-billion dollar problem to all organizations, of all sized and within all industries. The concerns associated with oeuvre drug use ar financial, physical and strongty issues. Summary Since the 1970s, drug use in the workplace has become non only common, but rampant. The annual financial seismic disturbance to the business world associated with this problematic use has beencalculated to be in the hundreds of billions of dollars. The monetary consequences of this behavior dramatically reduce the bottom line profit of any abnormal organization.Higher than average insurance rates be shopworn to organizations take placeing this issue, which reduces the profits for all shargonholders. Certain industries ar more susceptible to drug use than opposites. They are also the industries that realize high-pitcheder safety issues and encounter more dangerous workplace conditions. Construction and manufacturing are two industries affected more than most. The Department of Labor, citing examples of dramatic results, reported that due to the implementation of spaciotemporal prevention programs, many companies had a turn-around in incidents and related costs.They used examples of companies r anging in size of a small local plumbing company in Washington DC to the large international group, CSX Transportation Corporation. The companies were reported to move over all benefited in many ways, from drastically reduced prescribed test results to reduced insurance costs or ancillary problems that are inescapable with these problems. It is further suggested that drug use in the workplace can be prevented (elaws). Preventing these costly behaviors would only increase overall safety in the workplace and result in overall higher profits for the shareholders.Although deemed by opponents to be an expensive course of action, especially to smaller organizations with limited resources, employee drug interrogation is commonly believed to be quite effective at combating workplace drug use, in that locationby promoting a potentially safer worksite and a higher profit for the organization. The cost of the prevention is well worth the effort. Recommendations Appendix A patriarchal qu estion Interview XXXX, Vice President of XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX _Do you feel the use of drugs and/or alcohol are common in your industriousness? Absolutely. We direct a high ratio of young workers, from their mid-twenties to mid-forties, who typically are drawn to this field. These are ridicules who you might find at the end of a bar any given night, or might be a once cursory drug user who went bad. What is the financial impact to this industry-wide problem? most(prenominal) of all, we are saddled with high insurance rates, specifically liability and Workers Compensation rates. in that location is a formula for determining rates, and those rates are based on experience modifiers, among other things.Guys who use at work in our industry are an stroke waiting to happen. You cant be safe on a construction site while you are elate or high. Is the problem rampant in your company? We are charming flourishing. We havent had much of a problem in our company. Most of the men we have with us are family men, more concerned with liberation home after work and spending time with their families. They may wassail a beer or two from time to time, but are not the kind of group who gets their paycheck and disappears for a few days. Being in this vulnerable industry, how do you combat the potential employee use of drugs and/or alcohol in your workplace? _ Like I said, we have a close group of guys working for us. provided we hire smart. We screen our guys through a drug test and extensive referrals. A lot of our custody recommends their family or friends to us as well. Are you contractually obligated to drug test? In some cases, yes. Several of the big General Contractors in the area, such as Turner, ONeal, they all have a section in their standard contract requiring a written safety and drug-free program.Also, be union, we are all required to tet once a year, even management. What are your procedures for drug scrutiny? We prescreen test, and random test throughout the year. Annual physicals and accident testing isnt uncommon. We send the guys to Kroll, through the MUST program. What do you test for? The typical, marijuana, cocaine, meth, etc. We dont typically test for alcohol unless there is a problem and we need to protect ourselves. How do your employees feel slightly this constitution? What are the consequences of validatory test results?We have the skilful to overthrow immediately. Unfortunately, we have exercised that right in the past. Usually, though, if we send a guy to the clinic for an unannounced test, and he knows he is dirty, we usually dont see him again. provided once again, the majority of our guys have been with us for a while, and we know them well, so it hasnt been too much of a problem. Appendix B main(a) Research Interview _Do you feel the use of drugs and/or alcohol are common in your industry? _ Unfortunately yes. Construction has always had this problem. What are the specific concerns associated with this proble m? _ Most importantly are the safety concerns. psyche using drugs could potentially cause the loss of life of him or other guys around him. We deal with a lot of equipment that can be insecure under the best of conditions, and we need to have our faculties around us. Are there other costs or consequences that are a concern? in that respect sure are. High Workers Comp rates, high liability rates, high cost of equipment that could be damaged due to miss-use, these are dependable some of the costs.That is why we have such a comprehensive drug policy. Does having a drug-free workforce help you in the industry? Sure. We are known as a safety conscience company, and our EMR rating proves it. Plus, some of the places where we do work wint let us onsite without one. Motor City Casino, General Motors, enthalpy Ford Healthcare Systems, they all require written drug-free policies in our safety manual. Are the costs incurred due to your drug testing policy fiscally efficient? Yes, very muc h so.To send a guy in for a test is a heck of a lot cheaper than relations with injuries or lawsuits. How do your employees feel about this policy? The ones who dont like it are the ones who dont last too long. What are the consequences of a positive test result? We have been pretty lucky in that regard. We havent had too much of a problem. But I will say, if a guy shows up on a jobsite high or drunk, the foreman or the other laborers will dispose him out. One guy we sent to the clinic for a random test seemed neural about it.He left the jobsite but never went to the clinic. He just quit and never came back. He was only with us for a few months by that time, and we were glad he never returned. Appendix C Primary Research Interview Ms. Wendy Richardson, MUST Program Administrator How long has the MUST Program been around? Since 1988. We were the first in the XXXX Area. What is your most important focusing? Primarily workplace safety, with drug-free workplace policies. _What is y our _circle of industries? We have several unions and batch associations in our membership.We also have a lot of Owners such as Ford, GM, Chrysler, DTE, Servistall, all the hospitals in the area, DPS and the Airport (NW Terminal) Would you say the drug testing sight of the programs works? Yes, certainly. We had about 6% of the drug tests come back positive 6 years ago, and now we are seeing less than 2. 5% Are certain drugs more common than others? Although I am not privy to the test results, the typical positive tests are mostly positive across the board. Sometimes it is higher for one drug than another. Cocaine and marijuana are pretty popular, unfortunately. Appendix D The United States ConstitutionThe right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be s earched, and the persons or things to be seized. Appendix E Executive Order 12564 of September 15, 1986 Drug-Free Workplace Attached work Cited XXXX, XXXX Personal Interview 4/1/09 Drug Testing A Bad Investment. American Civil Liberties Union. 4/8/09 http//www. aclu. org/drugpolicy/testing/10842res20021021. html. Drug Testing in the Workplace. ACLU. 3/17/09 < http//www. lectlaw. com/files/emp02. htm>. elaws Drug-Free Workplace Advisor. US Department of Labor. 4/11/09 http//www. dol. gov/elaws/ asp/drugfree/benefits. htm. Gottlieb, Mark. Drug Testing An Industry Standard. MSG Accountants, Consultants &038 Business Valuators. 3/17/09 http//www. msgcpa. com/general. php? category=Industry+Library&038headline=Drug+Testing. How Drug Testing Works. Prevention Not Punishment. 3/16/09 http//www. preventionnotpunishment. org/howsdt. html. Menzo, XXXX PersonalInterview 4/13/09 Richardson, Wendy Telephone Interview, 4/14/09