Sunday, March 31, 2019
hearty unravel Self-Evaluation ExampleThe grapheme was referred to the school social operateer by the F.1 manikin teacher and the teacher describe to the worker that she had noniced her student named Judy had avoided link group activities and she was fe bed astir(predicate) bulling and she would cry suddenly in the house sometimes. subsequently exploration, the following presenting problems are observed incessantly bullied by markmatesAvoid joining group activitiesFear ab forth ballyraging and cry suddenly in the classAim of the assessmentThe aim of the assessment is To gather the basic information of the thickening roughly personal, family, school and social network To orbit the underlying factors contributing to the presenting problems and To find out the facts those trigger the problems so that an encumbrance scheme could be set up to financial aid the invitee.Brief Social HistoryThe worker had conducted four personal querys and based on the interview sessi ons conducted with the lymph node, the following information is gathered.Genogram/family background and relationshipThe upraises of Judy were divorced since she was in elemental school and thus she was brought up in a single parent family. Judys father lives in Mainland China and he does non contact with the family. The ternary family members Madam Wong, Andy and Judy live together. The mother Madam Wong, 44 years old, kit and caboodle as a cleaner and she is the only bread winner of the family. Andy Cheung sr. brother of Judy is 15 years old attending F.2 at a different school from Judy.Emotional conditionThe lymph node was observed to be upset with the maculation she is being bullied. Moreover, she did not want to disclose overmuch about her problems and she was not convinced that others could understand and help her. She also mat that she is not as capable as her brother in doing not very well with her school lessons.Living conditionThe customer lives together with h er mother and elder brother at a public lodgement flat.Financial conditionThe mother, Madam Wong is the main bread winner of the family and the periodic income was unobserved.History of violence/abuseThere is not serious cocktail dress of violence according to the workers observation. However, the worker had studied that the customer had been constantly bullied by her classmates at school. She was hit and her belongings were destroyed sometimes.Supportive networkThe invitee had some friends at the previous school she attended but she does not have any friends at the current school. The knob told the worker that although she reported to the teacher about the issue, those who bullied her did not stop bullying and she does not sound off it is a good idea to report the teacher. Moreover, she does not want to split up her mother about her problems and spiritings since she does not want to bother her. It tickms that the mother entirely would be her supportive network since s he mentioned during the interview that her mother would listen to her if she discloses her senseings. cope strengthsThe worker assessed that she does not know how to cope with the problem except weeping and according to the client, reporting to the teacher did not work.Case c onceptualization snapper issues referred by the school teachera) Avoid joining group activities in the classb) Cry suddenly in the class sometimesc) Constantly bullied, belongings are destroyed and hit by classmatesWorkers perception of the shopping centre issuesThe worker identified based on the personal interviews conducted thata) The client lacks self-importance confidence and self esteemSince she stated that she was not doing well at school and she is not as clever as her brother.b) The belief of the client that there is nobody who cares and understand herThe client mentioned that talking with other populate (eg. Teacher and family) would help and they would not listen to her nor understand her.Accordi ng to cognitive theorists, most social and behavioral dysfunction is derived from misconceptions that people hold about themselves, other people and situations (Hepworth, 2006). In this carapace, the self-defeating belief of the client that she is not as capable as others and that there is no one who place help/understand her had led her to mad and behavioral consequences that block her to be a reassured and capable girl.Analysis of the problemThe worker analyses the case by applying the Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT), using the ABC example which was created by Albert Allis (Corey, 2005).A (activating event) B (belief) C (emotional and behavioral consequences)D (disputing encumbrance) E (effect) F (new feelings)In this case, the worker conceptualized that the preposterous beliefs of the client that she is bullied and mistreat because there is no one who understands her and that she is incapable triggered her to be depressed and to be away from the social milieu at school.The worker strongly believes that once the client can detect what her irrational beliefs are, the client could be helped with the disputing interventions to dig her dysfunctional beliefs by herself to solve the problem and to be a confident girl.Strengths and opportunitiesThe worker had identified the following strengths and opportunities of the client during the interview sessionsStrengths Good friends (social life) at primary school. This implies that she does not lack socialization skills Helping her mother with domicile chores. It means she is a considerate daughter and she has a strong inwardness to her mother.Opportunities The class teacher is concerned about the problem. She is also willing to help the client with the problem. Her mother would listen to her if she discloses her problems and feelings to her.Intervention planThe goal of the intervention plan is to help the clienta) To identify the irrational beliefb) To tip over then discriminate these irrational beliefs by herselfc) To help the client to work self confidence and self esteemd) To help the client socialize and enroll in school activitiesImmediate plan Ask the client to do assignment so that she can identify and cope with her irrational beliefs Assignment such as Feeling List would be accustomed so as to make the client aware of her ownemotional condition and the progress (Sheafor Horejsi, 2006). Encourage the client to build up self confidence and self esteem by assigning her to identify the item conditions and circumstances under which she feels positive and worth about herself(Sheafor Horejsi, 2006). Promote the clients resiliency by assist her to discover her own strengths to overcome all thehardships (Egan, 2007). hold forth with the teacher how to provide psychosocial support to the clientLong term plan To set up a good social support for the client to engage the school environment, familymembers in the component process (Egan, 2007). Discuss with the class te acher for organizing classroom activities where the client would beable to actively participate and appreciate her own strengths.Recommendations for follow up To have another case session to set up an agreed intervention plan with the client and toencourage the client do the assignments. Assessment on the school environment regarding the bulling issues might help Discussion with the family and the school to engage in the helping processPart IISelf EvaluationThe worker had use different types of communication and helping skills during the interview session with the client.The skills used and the metier Warm greeting before starting the interview Engaging with the client/rapport buildingIt is a way to let the client feel comfortable with the interview session. The client was much willing to talk freely after engaging with some general conversation at the lineage of the session. communicate the understanding of the client about being referred by the class teacher Confirmation of wh ether the client is willing to talk to the worker Asking expectation of the client and inform about the interview session Explaining the main purpose of the interview that she would be helped through the processIt helped the client see clearly what the worker will be doing with her so that she can feel free to talk to the about her problems. Express understanding towards the clients through basic attending skills such as faced the client squarely, adopted the blossom forth posture, leaned towards the client, maintained good eye contact and relaxed while interacting with the client.In these slipway of basic attending skills, I expressed empathetic attending, understanding and willingness to help. It helped the client to be willing in expressing her feelings and problems. Using verbal and non-verbal attending skills such as eye contact with the client, facial expression, and minimal encouragers.It encouraged the client to be more willing to talk. It also showed that I was listening to the client conservatively. I used follow up unbeliefs like open-ended questions to endure what the client had said so that there would not be any misunderstandings. Clarifying and verifying what the client had told the workerI clarified/ sustain what the client had told me by using phrases like it appears to me that and questions like oh you want to is that what are saying? It helped to discriminate the misunderstanding and confusion that can occur if I did not clarify or verify what the client had told and if I see in my own perception. Paraphrasing and SummarizingIt was effective in a sense that I could express my understanding about the client and that I had been listening carefully and finding a way to help the client. Using of open questions and miracle questionI used open questions to look what the client had said for stop understanding. Moreover, I also asked the clients perception on problem solving by asking What do you depend you can do to stop the bully? Althoug h it did not help the client solve the problem completely, it helped the client think about what she could do to cope with the problem.I also used the questions to explore the clients wants and goals by asking How do you want your classmates to treat you? What kind of situation do you want? and What if ? By asking these questions, the client voiced out what she wants and what she wants to be like which can result in goal setting.Strengths and weaknesses in the interventionDuring the intervention process, I evaluate the strengths of mine that I had a pretty good engagement with the client applying basic communication and helping skills. The use of appropriate questioning and clarifying worked to identify the problem and in detecting what the client wants and needs.As weaknesses, I needed to improve more on rapport building to gain the trust of the client. More practice on follow up questions and leading questions so as to make the client more articulating to disclose her problems.In reflecting my learning, this practice session helped me a lot to build up my skills needed in social work practice. Moreover, I have learned a lot about the military strength of the skills and what more could have been done to boost up my skills to be a good professional. The class discussion and feedback from the classmates made me see myself clearly about the strengths and rooms for improvement.
Saturday, March 30, 2019
instal of P atomic number 18nting Styles on Child DevelopmentYielding an ideal nipper goes beyond having the image of it. The pargonnts manner of handling situations like when chel ben accidentally break a glass, ask for concert tickets, or get wiped out(p) grades in the exam, determines if pliable a well-developed churl is possible for them. P atomic number 18nts, in hope of making their baby bird closer to what they expect, are continuously making attempts to shape their tikeren and to achieve the version that depart please them. These attempts are perceived through parenting ardours, and the disparate styles are the different courses parents call up could bring ab pop out results that would satisfy them. They sidetrack on the level of unacquainted(p)dom, control, warmth, and causas of penalizement, and affect pincerren differently. Regard little of these variations, most parents believe that organismness either stern or mild is the only formula to stomach a p leasurable, when, in fact, neither works. Every decision parents make for sincere situations is a step away or towards yielding a pleasant pincer.Link between the family and the youngsters outcomeThe family is the principal realm and vital figure for the childs developments, and parents, as part of the family, are in charge of raising the child (Preethi Rosa, 2012). A childs confidence, expertness, and doings are h unmatchedd and improved through the parenting style compeld by the parents or guardians. Developments results from parenting styles (Kopko, 2007 Kordi Baharudin, 2010). Terry (as cited in Ernst, 2013) said that a childs outcome including ability to interact, performance in school, psychosocial development, and the way he or she clears is predicted through the three parenting styles. Kordi and Baharudin (2010) added that parenting styles in like manner predict optimism, confidence, motivation, and attention problems (par. 5).The four parenting stylesThe differen t parenting styles are characterized according to their level of demand and control, class of independence, pointedness solvent, and type of penalisation. In terms of the phase of demand and control, granting immunity, and reaction, Samuel (2012) described sniffy parents as someone who offer stipulates without freedom. According to him, these parents are very dominating and lot down too very much control. They demand order without freedom and offer no choice, making the decision-making contingent to the parents or guardians. They do non carry out discussion with the child and simply want their children to follow parental directives without question. For them, subjection is the most important aspect in stop (Dewar, 2010a). They give low answer or warmth to the child (Baumrind, 1966, 1991 Samuel, 2012). In terms of vindicatements, despotic parents impose restrictive, punitive, and harsh disciplinary practice. They punish through withdrawal of make bed or verbal abu se by way of scolding, threatening, ridiculing, shaming, or volley of anger. Physical punishments like spanking and hitting are excessively use by this type of parents.A nonher style is the permissive parenting. Samuel (2012) described parents down the stairs this style offer freedom but overlooks limits to the extent that their children are unrestrained. permissive parents are non demanding and controlling, and practically offer their children unlimited choices. They are inactive in improving their childs deeds because they value their pomp of affection and love to their child above all. Parents do not exertion obedience and imperatives upon the child. This type of parenting style imposes too utmost breaker point of response or warmth that they easily give in to their childs requests. As a result, parents spoil their children. Permissive parents also hardly punish (Baumrind, 1966, 1991 Samuel, 2012). Children who have been spanked feel that they have paid for their misbe haviour and are free to misbehave again.Uninvolved check out is also known as rejecting-neglecting discipline. This kindhearted of parenting style is neither demanding nor responsive. They are emotionally detached and uninterested. Because they are dis resided, they do not impose punishments at all (Tiller, Garrison, Block, Cramer, Tiller, n.d.).Rational- peremptory discipline is described as democratic, where parents have lavishlyschool degree of demand and control. They inculcate to their children the importance of maintaining limit and control of their actions. Parents value the assent of the children, so they allow discussion with them and engage their children in making decisions. Parents have high degree of response or warmth. Children under this style have both(prenominal) demanding and responsive parents who encourage verbal give-and-take (Baumrind, 1966, 1991 Dewar, 2010b). When punishing, parents use logical or natural consequences, grounding, reducing or withholdin g rewards, and carrying out penalties (Valya, 2009).The presented parenting styles differ from one another as the degree of demand and control, freedom, response, and the type of punishment also vary. The four parenting styles influence children in different ways due to sure factors.Methods of punishmentFirst, the method of punishment has side effects to the child (Baumrind, 1991 Ernst, 2013). haughtys disciplinary methods punish too much and do not contribute to the childs development. Valya (2009) and Gurian (2010) both agree that animal(prenominal) punishments do not work. The same incorrectlydoings will likely be committed again because the child thinks he or she has already paid for the misconduct committed by accepting these physical punishments. Instead of making the children rebound on their mistakes, the parents action of punishing physically instils to the child that problems could be handled through physical force. With the physical force being involved, children ob tain more aggressive. Traumatic experiences and destructive remarks from parents cause depression upon children (Cole et al., 2008 as cited in Ernst, 2013). According to Georgiou et al. (as cited in Dewar, 2010a), self confidence is likely to slouch because children under this style practically get involved in intimidate both as victims and as offender. The punitive disposition of overbearing parents who impose verbal abuse and physical punishment is no different than that of a bullys nature. Harsh and spoken contempt, insults, and ridicule distort the childs view about himself (Valya, 2009). Higher occurrence of depression and misgiving is due to corporal punishments (Dewar, 2010a), and the main lawsuit for compliance of children is their fear for punishment. An impressive discipline is not about being able to make children behave because they are scared of acquiring reprimanded. It is about teaching them of directing their behaviour in order to suit their deeds in a way t hat will reflect their distinction of what is right and prostitute (Valya, 2009). Instead of a child with improved behaviour, authoritarian parenting yields a traumatized child.On the other hand, the balmy nature of permissive discipline does not punish and does not position the child because parents overlook misbehaviours. Sears, Maccoby Levin (as cited in Baumrind, 1966) found out that after misbehaving, the child is most likely to commit the same mistake again, thinking that his or her parents approve of it.Uninvolved parents do not care whether their children behave or misbehave.Rational Authoritative disciplines nature addresses problem in misconduct. Seth and Ghromode (2013) affirm that through withdrawal of privileges and grounding system, children will not question the parents love. Valya (2009) said that the use of natural consequences is also expert, although they do not apply to all situations, especially when the childs health and refuge are at risk. In such situa tions, logical consequences work where children take responsibility of the result of their actions. The outcomes of the actions are experiences that teach the child to be accountable with the conduct he or she shows (Valya, 2009). This makes the child a good decision-maker. In addition, the verbal give-and-take relationship between the parents and children makes authoritative discipline unique. converse a unique characteristic that the other styles lack plays a all-important(a) role. Authoritative parents allow discussion where children explain their side or reason for misconduct and, in return, parents point out and correct the childrens mistake to make them understand where they went wrong In this manner, the child is likely to reflect on his or her actions and learn from this or her mistakes after the punishment (Baumrind, 1966 Kopko, 2007 Dewar, 2010b).The differences in the degree of control and setting of limits or standards cause variations on the childs behaviour.Too muc h control, limits, and high standards set by authoritarian parents trigger aggression on the part of the children as they feel their urge to break free. For instance, children of very dominating parents have greater chances of getting arrested for the setoff time (Chamber, Power, Loucks Swanson, 2001 as cited in Wittenborn, 2002). They are usually the delinquents, rebellious children, and drug users (Baumrind, 1991 Dewar, 2010a). Too much control, limits, and high standards may also cause children to become submissive and be dominated by fear. In the study by Lamborn et al. (as cited in Dewar, 2010a) in the United States, children under authoritarian discipline are less self-reliant and dependent with their parents decisions. This could be in fear of committing mistakes and getting harshly punished for it. They also found out that a child grows to be inert when the parents regard obedience above all (Valya, 2009).The lack of control, limit, and standards by permissive parents al lows the child to be involved in self-detrimental activities. Parents are so lenient that decision-making is left to the child alone, which opens to higher possibility of committing wrong decisions. Children may show impulsive behaviours because there are only hardly a(prenominal) standard set by the parents that the child has to conform with. No one controls them and sets limit that serve as guides for the children.The control, limit, and standards that are mutually consented by both rational-authoritative parents and their children open a higher possibility for the child to follow because the childs viewpoints and opinions are being considered. When planning, parents apply democratic practices like asking for their childs views, choice, or opinion (Dewar, 2010b). Discrepancies in some countries of authoritative parents in terms of democratic practices may be observed, but the nature of authoritative discipline lies on the reasoning activity that happens between the child and par ent, which is a characteristic shared by all countries involved in the study (Dewar, 2010b). As the children get involve, they learn to participate in arguments, see that their opinions are of great importance, a healthy self concept.Third, the degree of freedom provided by the parents is an important factor for developing the childs competency and assertiveness.The nature of authoritarian parenting makes the children highly dependent (Lamborn et al. and Steinberg et al. as cited in Dewar, 2010a). It does not help in honing the childrens competency because their actions are being restricted. In Turkey, Turkell and Tzer (as cited in Dewar, 2010a) found out that children of authoritarian parents are also less resourceful and less proficient in social skill. Children rely to a great extent on their parents decisions, so they likely to be inexperienced when it comes to decision making. Children also have hard time making friends. They are also often poor in academics (Dornbusch et al. , 1987 as cited in Tiller, n.d. Terry, 2004 as cited in Kordi Baharudin, 2010). This shows how authoritarian parenting poorly improves the competency of children.The lack of restrictions of permissive parents cause egocentric tendencies to occur. The child makes selfish decisions because they are often self-centered because parents easily give in to the childs request, (Kopko, 2007 Dewar, 2010c).Uninvolved parents put their child to high risks because they are not guided.The freedom within limits nature of Rational-Authoritative discipline makes the child think first before doing something. The high value that parents place upon the childs opinion (Samuel, 2012) makes them good decision-maker. In terms of moral thinking, the childs ability to reason out is improved through the inductive discipline imposed in authoritative parenting (Krevans Gibb, 1996 Kerr et al., 2004 as cited in Dewar, 2010b).Lastly, the degree of responsiveness or warmth reflects the degree of patronise the pa rents provide their children in achieving identity and overall development.The little warmth with high demands in authoritarian discipline provides little support on the childs individuality and development. Authoritarian parents value obedience, not development, above all (Valya, 2009 Dewar, 2010a). The childs opinion and emotions are often disregarded because the parents oppose discussion (Baumrind, 1991 Kopko, 2007 Valya, 2009 Dewar, 2010a).Too much warmth with low demands in Permissive discipline provides support only. Parents bollocks their children too much because they find it hard to decline their childs request. They believe that giving whatever their children wants is a way to show their love to them, and fear that not doing so would disappoint their children (Kopko, 2007).Uninvolved parents do not give warmth and do not provide developmental support to their children.Rational-Authoritative disciplines high degree of warmth balanced with high parental demands gives the ne cessary high degree of support needed to go steady the childs development. Despite the support provided by the parents, standards mutually concur by the child and the parents still exist that guide the child end-to-end the development process. The existence of these standards ensures not only that the child develops, but also that the child develops with high level of confidence, competency, and desirable behaviour (Dewar, 2010b). According to Klein et al. (as cited in Ernst, 2013), there is a correlation to positive self-perception and authoritative parenting styles (par. 10).Proper degree of demand, degree of freedom, degree of response, and the type of punishment result to competent, confident, and well behaved children. The degree of demand must be high according to their capability. This ensures that children aim for high standards that are possible or within their capability, and encourages them to reach these demands because these standards consented by them. The degree o f freedom must be within limits. Children will be tenanted in critical thinking before making any decisions, and continuous decision making will make them good decision makers. The freedom allows them to explore more, charm the limits guide them. Freedom builds up competency and confidence, while the limit ensures proper behaviour. The degree of response must be high yet demanding. High response shows high support. High parental response is a confirmation to the child that parental love exists, and balancing response with demand will remind the child of the parents expectation of meeting certain standards. Punishment must be mild in forms of consequences and withdrawal of privileges or grounding system. These punishments neither hinder nor destroy childs development. In addition, they do not inflict emotional and physical pains.Parents are often bothered by the unpleasant things they notice on their children, and most parents would infernal everything except themselves. They sel dom ponder where they could have possibly gone wrong in raising their child, when, in the first place, it was them who looked after the child. The characteristic of the rational-authoritative parenting style works because of balance. The ideal combination of the degree of demand, freedom, and response, helps develop confidence, improves competency, and ensures a well-behaved child. When a child gets low grades, stern parents punish at once, lenient parents let it slide, while balanced parents ask why. There is no correct child, but it is never an excuse to not yield a good one.Some researchers claimed that kids of authoritarian parents are well-behaved, but these are based on self-reports and are subject to skepticism.
Incidents And lead Interaction Within The Movie History EssayThis radical analyses the theories and concepts of principaling of key characters in the movie, Invictus. The key characters analysed argon chairwoman Nelson Mandela and Francois Pienaar, sea schoolmaster of the southeast Afri give the sack rugger group.Based on a intensity written by John Carlin, Playing the Enemy Nelson Mandela and the Game That Changed a Nation, the movie is directed by award-winning director Clint Eas bothod. Starring Morgan freeman as professorship Nelson Mandela and Matt Damon plays Francois Pienaar, who is the current captain of the Springboks, the sulfur Afri trick rugby squad, it was released in the United States in mid-December 2009.2.0 SYNOPSIS OF MOVIE storylineThe story centres around veritable(a)ts before and during the 1995 Rugby being transfuse, hosted in to the south Africa shortly afterwards the fall of apartheid with the release of political pris whizzr Nelson Mandela . Mandela was held in a prison on Robben Island for close to 27 eld. As the unfermented elected chairman, Mandela vowed to get together the South Africa population which is currently mixed bag integrity into both groups the white state who originated from Europe and came to South Afri mint in the s hithertoteeth century cognise as Afrikaners and the native smutty population of the democracy. The movie basically shows professorship Mandelas attempt to commingle both groups in withstanding the countrys rugby aggroup, the Springboks (rugby was traditionally a white sport) and steering the aggroup as it do a historic drive towards winning the 1995 Rugby World cup Championship.Despite all betting odds and initial resistance, the sullen natives of South Africa short began to show interest in the Springboks. As the squad up up wins to a capaciouser extent and to a greater extent games, they continue to receive rising support from both the Afrikaners and the forbi dding natives. The aggroup obtaind unexpected achiever in the 1995 Rugby World Cup final exam, defeating the impregnableest contrary in the tournament, New Zealand, which brought cheer not b bely to the Afrikaners but in like manner to the black natives all over the country as they celebrated the groups victory. This of necessity began to bridge the divide between the devil groups that had been there for centuries due to apartheid.The entitle Invictus is translated from the Latin as undefeated or unconquered, and is the title of a poesy by English poet William Ernest Henley (1849-1903). The ending saw the recitation of verses from the poem step up of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole,I convey whatever gods whitethorn be For my unconquerable soul.In the fell prehend of circumstance I put one over not winced nor cried aloud.Under the bludgeonings of chance my question is bloody, but unbowed.Beyond this place of wrath and tears Looms but the v illainy of the shade,And yet the menace of the years Finds and shall find me unafraid.It matters not how strait the gate, How aerated with punishments the scroll,I am the master of my fate I am the captain of my soul.Leaders in the movieThere be clearly two distinguished loss championers in the movie professorship Nelson Mandela despite having to caseful other pressing issues to build the country in his prototypic experimental condition as president, Mandela is committed to his pledge to re conflate the people of South Africa. He tries to pass on this by sports, namely rugby in which the country is hosting in the acquireing year.Francois Pienaar, captain of the Springboks (South Afri shadower Rugby squad). Pienaar faces a tough challenge from professorship Mandela to drive his team to win the 1995 Rugby World Cup Championship, something he never thought possible before.Role of leadersNewly-elected president Nelson Mandela plays a leading role as the person who tries to unite the divided groups of white Afrikaners and the black South Afri green goddess natives with the end of apartheid. He guesss that it can be achieved through rugby, which is the number one sport for the white Afrikaners. With his strong belief in the provide of the game, Mandela went against the wishes of his own staff and follows his instincts to pursue his target.Mandela sedately leads by model, displaying great leading skills through his quiet reflective impudence in contemplating decisions, his commitment to achieve whatever he sets out to do and the guidance he touches other peoples lives and emotions with his personalized conference style.Meanwhile, Francois Pienaar admires chair Mandelas aspirations to unite the people of South Africa and was inspired by his dedication and perseverance to achieve his goal. Through his leaders and commitment, Pienaar steadily builds his teams confidence and began to win much and more touch ones, and eventually brought his team to victory against the strongest opponent, New Zealand, in the final match of the 1995 Rugby World Cup.3.0 leaders ASPECTSIncidents inwardly the movie involving the leaders cardinal incident shows a sporting organization where all charge members atomic number 18 black natives, and they conform to to pass a motion to change the name, burnish and logo of the rugby team to suit a different and blacker South Africa. Currently, the rugby team represents the pride of the Afrikaners and is despised by the black natives as they see it as a symbol of apartheid. However, President Mandela who arrives at the impact just after the voting mold asks the committee members to rethink their decisions in the context of amity for the country and the good of the population. In the end, he manages to contact 13 chooses on his side which is ample for him to lay aside the Springboks.Mandelas style of participative leadership is very admirable. He always encourages those operative under him t o think otherwise to the highest degree surrounding issues. A good example would be the one concerning his personal security group. Instead of being suspicious about the truth and commitment of his white security staff, he directed the security head, a black Soth African native, to contrive together with their super experienced counterparts and catch from them. He withal treats the white security staff well even though some of them were against him when he was in prison.Days before the final match, Pienaar as captain of the rugby squad claims that the team needs a break. They head to Robben Island with their girlfriends to take their minds off the game. There, Pienaar visited the jail where Mandela was held. Standing inside Mandelas genuine jail cell, Pienaar is dismayed to discover how petty(a) the cell is and with nothing to pile on except a thin sheet on the raw ground. up to now the man who was held in this cell for nearly 26 years can easily forgive those who put hi m in prison, and has great plans to unite the people of the country.Incidents and leaders interaction inwardly the context of the moviePresident Mandela invites Pienaar to tea for their first impact. Mandela believes that he can achieve the unity that he plotted for through rugby and needed Pienaars assistance to get the support of the Afrikaners. Pienaar was charmed by Mandelas personal style and warmth upon his arrival at the Government House. He besides observed that Mandela treated everyone around him with great compliance, even the lady who served them tea.During the brief meeting, Mandela skillfully challenges Pienaar to think positively about winning the upcoming Rugby World Cup Championship. He dual-lane his vision on the importance of winning the championship to South Africa to unite the people via a World Cup victory. Pienaar who was impressed with the presidents quiet leadership, personal commitment and motivation to achieve the vision soon began to see the odds of winning the cup as a possibility, thus inspires him to lead this team to train harder that before.Leaders behaviour and characteristicsIn this movie, Mandela skillfully demonstrates his people-oriented leadership style. For instance, even on his first day in office as the recently-elected President of South Africa, he showed great courtesy to all his staff, blacks and whites, by come up to and smiling at everybody whom he passed by on his way to his suite. This take in him great respect from all staff, especially the white Afrikaners who thought they would be sacked once a black leader assumed office.Mandela to a fault decided to maintain the former white staff and builds an administrative team of both groups. The same too applies to his security staff. In order to lead by example and to achieve the unity he had long planned for, he believes that his team must reflect his vision.4.0 DESCRIPTION AND DISCUSSION OF LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOURLeadership behaviourLeadership styles be of i mport to fortunately lead teams in organisations. There are various styles of leadership that can be observed and are practised by leaders in todays organisations, but theories mostly centre these twoThe first group displays task-oriented behaviours, whereby the leader only manages the daily activities of his subordinates towards accomplishing a task which was predetermined.The second set involves people-oriented behaviour, also known as participative leadership. Leaders in this group normally come through a supportive role by encouraging his subordinates to get compound in decision making on the project that they are locking on. This results in a positive work environment which increases productivity of the team as they feel that they are part of the decision making process and thus own the project.Evidently, both sets of behaviours are important to create a balance in successful leadership. President Mandela excellently displayed both task-oriented and participative leadership styles in his quest to build the soil. He sought the help and society of Pienaar to transform the image of the Springboks in the eyes of the black natives. Through Pienaars leadership, the team members successfully won the hearts of the black natives and garner their support which steered the team to victory.Change agent capabilitiesBasically, a change agent is someone who can motivate others around him to produce higher degree of output, to do more and to achieve cleanse things in their lives.Change agents require emotional intelligence operation to ensure people are totally engaged in a project. People who are exceedingly supportive of the purpose and are highly committed to achieve the objectives of the project allow for contribute to better productivity and chances of meeting the goals and objectives are maximised. A change agent needs to have high competencies in soft skills, namely excellent people and communication skills, to encourage peoples involvement and minimise resistance. He or she must be able to reach out to the inner values and beliefs of the people voluminous in the project in order to implement change with the people.Clearly, President Mandela has demonstrated his capabilities in becoming the change agent for South Africas unity and progress. President Mandela demonstrates these managerial traits effectively through leading by example and motivating people through his great respect for others and personal humility. His quiet confident manner and strong commitment in conveying his visions and aspirations also encourage others around him to do amazing things that they never thought they are capable of doing before.Able to support, able to break dance new ideas and recognize acquisitionDespite the hostility shown towards his support for the Springboks, President Mandela stood his ground and diligently and bravely at melted the rugby matches. He even made an effort to study the names of all the players and greeted them personally by their name before the matches and during practices.In order to promote foreign investment in build South Africas economy with is also laden with issues, Mandela administrative team tries to ensure that President Mandela receives wide press coverage whenever he meets with other institution leaders to discuss bilateral relationships.5.0 IDENTIFICATION AND EXPLANATION OF INCIDENTSExecutive summary of the two incidents selected.President Mandela read the new concerning the upheaval in management of the Springboks team after he assumes the new position. He started to devise how to unite the people of South Africa and saw rugby as the vehicle that might work to bridge the divide. He understands that most Afrikaners are afraid of losing their identity when a black leader becomes president of the country and that the Springboks rugby team is traditionally very important to the white population. He thus decides to use the Springboks as a means to unite the population and the upcoming R ugby World Cup Championship as the event that will fuck off them together. subsequently when Mandela came to know that a sports committee which comprise all black members voted to change the identity of the rugby team by changing the name, logo and distort of the Springboks to reflect a new and blacker South Africa, he personally move to attend the meeting and asked the committee members to rethink their decisions and explain the implications that their decisions might bring onto the unity of the South African population. He managed to get a small following of 13 votes on his side however, the small majority was enough to keep the Springboks intact. He then forges ahead with his plan to unite the black and white population through rugby.Pienaar also does his part to support President Mandelas commitment to unite the people of South Africa and instill pride in his teammates towards aunited country. In his first attempt to get the message across, Pienaar tries to make his team act ually sing the South African national anthem by giving them copies of the anthems lyrics. However, his teammates show clear disinterest and merely scrunch up their copies. Later, they are forced by the President to take occasional breaks from rugby and go out into the poorer areas of South Africa and teach rugby to the natives as a way to inculcate interest of the game to the black natives. At first, only Chester who is the teams sole black player is welcomed by the black children but eventually, after many attempts, the full-page team is accepted by the rural population. The team then willingly help introduce the sport to a new generation of children and instil national pride, regardless of race.Involvement of the selected leaders within the incidentIn the first incident, President Mandela takes it upon himself to make sure that the Springboks are able to maintain their name, logo and colours despite differment from the black sports committee members. He stood his ground and clea rly conveyed the message across that what he did was for the good of the countrys unity.In the second incident, Pienaar time-tested to change the attitude of the team players towards embracing their national anthem. Even though he was not successful on his first attempt, the fact that he went on to sing the anthem displayed his willingness to lead by example, hoping that the others will follow suit.Making decision within team, group and individual settingA strategic leader has a team of decision makers to help him reach a consensus when making important decisions. This process of decision-making improves the quality of the decisions, especially when developing crucial planning and policies touch the country.A strategic leader needs a competent team to support his role. Coupled with his knowledge and skills, a strategic leader can lead a team of high performing individuals to create and develop strategic vision and plans utilising available resources and implementing national polic ies. Due to the complexity of todays world economy and global issues, a strategic leader of a nation requires the assistance of a forward-looking team of executives to forge ahead with his plans to achieve his vision.Charismatic and transformational rolesThere are very few leaders who are capable of transformational leadership. However, this is not driveed unfortunate as a leaders eventual(prenominal) job is to keep the organization productive and the people engaged. In trustworthy instances, too much transformation can be chaotic and lead nowhere.In this movie, Mandela was one of the few who can be categorized as a successful transformational leader. He was able to encourage people to believe in themselves so that the organisation can achieve greater heights. For instance, in his first meeting with Pienaar, Mandela explains that a leaders job is to get chase to believe that they are capable of doing more than they think possible. This thinking then leads to the rugby teams vict ory in winning the World Cup Championship.Leaders with these types of behaviours and attitudes tend to draw followers as people are of course attracted to those who display violence and inspire belief in others. These charismatic qualities modify effective leadership.6.0 Critically analyze each of the two and more incidents and consider other optionsthe leaders could have considered and made.Participative leadership, delegation and empowermentParticipative leadership style, which is known to be the topper type of corporate leadership style in organisations today, allows employees to get involved in decision-making process to a certain extent. This participatory style of employee management creates healthy relationship between management and employees as both sides feel that their involvement is sought in the process of achieving the organizations goals and objectives.This leadership technique also promotes the development of future leaders via their participation in determining a common goal for the organization. As involvement of team members are required in decision making, hidden talents can be unearthed and their leadership qualities polished further.In the first incident, President Mandela asserts his decision to let the Springboks keep their identity but at the same time asks the committee members to reconsider their decision. Although he managed to persuade a small minority (13 votes) to agree with him, the number is sufficient and he looks upon it as a small win, not a total defeat. This displays his participative leadership style whereby instead of using his power and bring to change the committees decision, he asked them to rethink their decision and get them to vote again.For the second incident involving Pienaar, as captain of the team he tried to persuade the other members to sing along the national anthem. However, when the team wiped out(p) the paper given to them, he did not reprimand them but went on to sing the anthem. He tried to lead by example, hoping that the team would follow suit once they see him doing so. In encouraging the team to work harder towards achieving their goal of winning the World Cup Championship, Pienaar was seen motivating his team members so that they can all work towards one purpose and perform their best in every match. Pienaar also uses participative leadership to inculcate team expression and camaraderie.Power and influencePower refers to the capacity a person has to influence the decision of another person so that the person acts according to his wishes. The more power a person has, the higher his influence on the whole system is.Meanwhile, influence causes a change in the attitude or behaviour of others and is more of a process which guides the peoples activities towards appropriate directions in meeting management objectives that have been set.As the President of the country, Mandela has both power and influence. However, he skillfully uses his power and influence to generate respec t and support from the people.Pienaar also steadily works his way up to gain trust and respect from his fellow teammates. By commanding their trust and respect, he was capable of transforming the recognition of the rugby team and instill pride and higher commitment from them.managerial traits and skillsPresident Mandela and Pienaar both demonstrate high level of management skills and leadership traits which help them gain support from a population which are ab initio plagued by centuries of racial divide. Mandela inspirational leadership motivates Pienaar to perform better than he ever thought he could. Through Mandelas quiet self-confidence and charisma, Pienaar was overwhelmed and personally look upon him as a great leader. Based on this motivation, Pienaar further his rugby team to work harder and strive for victory.Leading changeMandelas first meeting with Francois Pienaar displays some important leadership lessons. When Piennar was asked by Mandela on his leadership philosop hy, he answers that he believes in leading by example. Mandela concurs with him that leading by example is crucial. In response to another question on how Pienaar inspires people, he affirms that people are inspired through the heart and by what they see. strategical leadershipStrategic leadership refers to leaders who successfully influence hulky groups of people in organisations to act as required establish on established organisational structure, allocated resources and communicated objectives and vision. They are generally functional in a highly complex environment which is influenced by external factors beyond their control.Strategic leaders have to digest information quickly and make correct decisions based on whatever is available to them at the point in time. As such, consequences of their decision affect more people in the organisation and tend to commit more resources. Sometimes, the decisions and initiatives can only implicate long-term plans and may take years to prepar e and execute.Ethical issuesIn this movie, President Mandela transforms the perceptual experience of the black natives on rugby which has always been a white sport. Traditionally, the black natives despise the Springboks which they perceive as representing apartheid. By changing the values through this game, Mandela fruitfully changed the tradition of the population as all of them showed great accord in supporting the rugby team as they made their way to victory.Another example of good value that is displayed in this movie is when President Mandela took over the office of President. Although the white Afrikaner staff thought that they will be asked to leave their jobs when a black leader becomes president of the country, they are surprised when President Mandela asked them to continue working as usual and keep them as part of his administrative team. Although Mandela was subjected to a lot of grievances during the apartheid era, he shows strength of character when he does not disp lay vindictiveness towards the white population. Yet he is able to forgive them and concentrate on uniting the racial divide.7.0 CONCLUSIONIn summary, the movie Invictus is full of great examples of leadership skills and values. President Mandela exhibited excellent leadership and management skills in bringing unity to the country through sports and Pienaar successfully executed his part to garner the nations support to an overpower victory.Clearly, participative leadership and empowerment through consensus and general consultation brings better results compared to achievement of power and influence to move a population. The excellent examples depicted end-to-end the movie indicate the strength of characters of both President Nelson Mandela and Francois Pienaar. Their strengths shone through when presented by challenges upon challenges as they work their way to realising a united South African population.Charismatic leaders with strong commitment and high confidence can transform the impossible into a possibility and create huge success for the organisation. President Mandela displays his charisma as he successfully attracts followers, who initially disagree with his principles, into participating in activities towards achieving his vision. He effectively nurtures their emotions and encourages their hearts to work towards building the unity and accept differences among them as strengths and think positively for a better South Africa.
Friday, March 29, 2019
Portion Control for tilt Man bestride custodytNetan BhardwajLifestyle, social status and frame of mind all count on on your health thus everybody wants a perfect physical appearance, which whitethorn vary based on gender and age, and the way bulk observe it is by attaining an ideal freight. But every challenge comes with obstacles e.g. lack of knowledge, resources and mevery former(a) factors, due to that fact obesity and tilt management absorb away pop off enormous problem amongst individuals of all ages. To a certain achievement minor tilt loss keister alter 1s path of life. Whether its living life to the fullest or being grueling holding you down. And every genius that is over exercising charge or obese is always looking for the easy way let out to lose weight down by not doing whatsoever exercise and take in anything they please. So provoke weight decline rattling occur without any medications, surgery, or even extensive exercise?To begin with, people wh o atomic number 18 obese tend to be uneducated about effects of obesity, nutrition, and depute entertain. Now knowing about the major risk of exposure that obesity brings is a major issue much(prenominal) as 29% of all deaths in Canada ar be front of obesity, where females argon at a taller risk of anxious(p) than males, and learning about these risks can be an eye opener for some and life changer for otherwises. Obesity causes or is close linked with a large number of health conditions like heart disease, stroke, diabetes be effective now to name a few and as numerous as11 types of cancer, including leukemia, colon, breast cancer WHO. 2014. Not just that but obesity as sanitary comes with social and emotional effects including discrimination, slender-scaleer wages, lower Quality of life and people being effected by obesity atomic number 18 more likely susceptible to depression. The type of dieting you eat can provoke a major tinct on your weight i.e. eating a high school skill/ nutritionists calorie dense meal (coffee and a doughnut) can cause overeating whereas eating multiple low energy/calorie meals (juice, a piece of toast, and scrambled eggs) can nominate an provide start of healthy choices by incorporating more nutrition consumption but s twinkle calorie intake and also it can champion with optimum weight management. For instance Rolls. 2014 compiled three systematic studies on various individuals and this is what was conducted.The first psychometric test involved sullen men and overweight women, they were given isocaloric slews of either high or low dense victuals to be eaten daily into a reduced energy diet for 2 months and one division later the group that was given low energy dense soup saying a 50% more reduction hence the other concur group.The second trial nevertheless obese women were tested and they were split into ii groups. One grope was counseled to portion control and eat more body of water rich fo ods (fruits, vegetables) and the other group was asked to eat limited portions ( fecunds and everything else). After a year the group that was told to eat more water rich foods garbled 23% more weight, had a reduction in hunger and felt up greater gratification.In the final trial, participants from trial one and trial two were monitored for six months. It was undercoat that individuals who eat a low energy diet befogged more than 50% of weight and eat300grams more than the high energy diet group. From these trial it can be concluded that for weight management to occur simply saying eat less is not the best show up to reducing the amount of intake. Therefore large portions of low energy dense foods can be used strategically to pass on their lower consumption and caloric intake. If people lowered the density of energy in their diet, they can eat pleasurable portions while managing as thoroughly as maintaining their body weight Rolls. 2014. Also through these trials it can be sa id that a variety of portion control methods can be applied, eating less high energy meals or eating more low energy foods, for exemplary portion management leading to a lower chance of weight gain.Obesity has become a significant problem, it causes more deaths the being underweight, across many regions of multiple countries. Obesity has become such(prenominal) a high risk factor that even token(prenominal) weight loss of 5 to 10% seems to be enough to provide a clinically significant health benefit and reduce the risk of death, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and many other Lagerros. 2013. But there ar limitations to weight loss i.e. physical disabilities, the quality of produce at a supermarket, ethnic acceptance (being fat or over weight considered good, shows how healthy you are), resemblance accessibility (neighborhood around the world tend not to pay any sidewalks thus making it difficult for individuals of all ages to be healthy) as well as neighborhood safety (Place s where criminal activity is high, People are less likely to leave their residence) and other resources. All these aspects play a tremendous role in weight reduction and or weight management.A study done by Amanda Reichards et al. 2014 about adults with physical disabilities with a BMI of 25%. So these individuals were randomized into two weight management approaches. One of these was My house diet (consists of a meal with fruits, vegetables, protein and dairy all in one plate) and the other was Stop waking diet (foods are based on the light consisted in traffic lights such as vegetables/fruits are green, potatoes/ cheese are yellow and fat foods are red) supplemented with portion controlled meals for 6 months. There were 126 enrollees and of those 70% of them completed initial 6 months and 60% of the 70% completed a succeed up phase. The Stoplight diet group reduced weight during initial 6 month and lost more weight during the follow up phase whereas the My plate diet group only lost weight during the initial 6 months from the studies done by Amanda Reichards and her colleagues it can be verbalize that by using portion control, barriers can be vote down for individuals that are overweight and have physical mobility impairments.Consumers are uncovered to many pieces of data such as the media, commercials and promotions. The comparison between two merchandises that are standardised in prices or completely buying a harvest- era for the first time, 58% of the consumers said that they used intersection check offs Wills et al2009.Furthermore, Canadians believe that labels are the most important way to get nutritional data. This source is then shadowed by various forms of media, friends and family, electronic media channels and lastly family physicians or other professionals Willset al.2009. It is notable that family physicians/medical professionals seem to play such a minimal role in general breeding.In the past, significant findings have been conducted by researchers to help modern scientist. Lexis, L (2004) conducted multiple studies where 38% of the peoples portions were controlled and the others werent. The research shows that 5% of the 38% examined sawing machine a weight reduction from their baseline weight whereas the other control group saw a 5% weight gain from their base line. She also did a study on Elevated waist/hip on men and women this a body mass index (BMI) greater the 27. Being overweight comes at a cost and its $656 higher annual medical oversee costs, and the IV results indicate that obesity raises annual medical costs by $2741 in 2005 dollars. Cawley J. 2012. More than 2 in 3 adults are considered to be overweight or obese. More than 0.33% adults are considered to be obese. More than 0.05 adults in North America are considered to have extreme obesity. About 0.33%of children and adolescents from ages 6 to 19 are considered to be overweight or obese. More than 16% of children and adolescents from the ages of 6 to 19 are considered to be obese field wellness and Nutrition (2010). Obesity can occur one pound at a time. Just like obesity so does prevention. National Institutes of wellness. 2013 these are just some facts about obesity that can be prevented by portion control.Solutions. Are there any? With so many problem and just any solutions. Here are a couple of solutions that can help with implicating portion control, first would be quiet meal replacement (shakes) can be a very useful technique there were small experiments knowing to makes many of the studies on the effectiveness of meal replacements were tough to scan as few were intend to regulate whether meal replacements are closely linked with greater weight reduction than a self-selected consumption of official foods. They also found that there is a relationship between the intakes of meal replacements in exchange of regular meals in the framework of energy controlled diets and celestial latitude in body weight. The second meth od would be tax change magnitude and front back trafficking. Increasing the tax on unhealthy food could be a stiff answer to many problems, the Danish brass has put a 25% tax on unhealthy foods (sweet based) such as ice cream chocolate and many others and beverages. They also criminalise the use of Trans-fatty acid (increases coronary heart cancer) leading companies to use a divers(prenominal) method of production and provide a better fat quality product. There is also Front of Pack traffic light nutrition labeling (this is when the nutritional label is put in the front and the product is labelled as a colour that indicated the type of product which is stated earlier in this paper). There was a randomized-controlled study was conducted to determine different food label formats on consumers product choices, the study established that traffic light labels had the most influential on consumers, compared to other methods. Even with time constraint consumers the traffic light labe ls and logos were more effective and high-octane rather than the ordinary label furthermore the likelihood of healthy choices had increase moreover with unlabeled food it is more difficult to classify as whether its healthy or unhealthy Borgmeier and Westenhoefer, 2009. By making such a major impact, neighboring countries are putting an emphasis on disease deduction methods as well. The third method is Pre-portioned foods it is an alternative approach to liquid meal plan it is a pre-packaged single meal / nosh which is bound to reduce weight also temporary studies have found that solid meal substitutes (bars) caused the tendency to feel more full than isocaloric liquid meal substitutes (shakes) Tieken et al. 2007.In an 18-month study conducted by denotation et al. 1996 where contributors were allocated to one of the four groups a usual behavioral interference was given, a behavioral treatment go with with financial encouragement for weight reduction, food source, or a cabal of food establishment and motivations. The food that was provided to the individuals consisted of pre-portioned conventional foods suitable for louver breakfasts and five suppers each week for 18 months. The quantity of weight reduction in the two groups, provided with sufficient food, was significantly superior to the other groups at 6, 12 and 18 months Wing et al. 1996.Also in another study, patients were given either a prepackaged, nutritionally complete, organised meal, plan that provided almost all of their diet and the other group was given a macronutrient equivalent usual-care diet. The prepackaged meal was designed to sustain long-term weight loss. This was proven at 1 year when the first group lost 5.8 kilograms while the other group only lost 1.7 kilograms loss Metz et al. 2000.A certain study, sought to separate the properties of the portion-controlled diets from other mechanisms of the weight reduction intervention by keeping the additional variables standardised across the two study groups. The pre-portioned food group was provided with three starters and one snack daily, which they could substitute with conventional foods by the rules of their program. After 6 months, the pre-portioned food group lost 7.3kg whereas the control group only lost Foster et al. 2013. The take away message from these studies is that Portioned food can cause a substantial difference between casual meals in terms of weight reduction thus allowing a greater consumption of food and loss in weight. Another solution is by regulating the advertisements that are shown to adolescents. This will cause children to be less attracted to food which can lead them to gain weight. In Sweden, Norway and Quebec the government has restricted television advertisements for children. More specifically, the Swedish Radio and tv set act does not grant commercial television advertisement that is intended to attract or gain the attention of children who are under the age of 12. However, most co untries tend not to revise advertisements, to make sure they are meant for children. A comparison of food advertising in 13 countries in different parts of the world, found that children who were watching more than 2 hours would be exposed to between 28 and 84 food advertisements per day Lagerros. 2013. angle management/reduction has been a major problem for decades now. Obesity is something that is more and more on the rise today and will continue to rise unless we do something about it, food is being pushed on television all the time. alter minds to eat calorie dense food but there is a way to fix that by informing people of how bad it really is and encouraging people to live a health-enhancing lifestyle. The solution is as simplex as eating a portioned diet and making it a lifelong diet. Some fat is essential for the body. It uses it for various implications such as heat, padding, insulation, and stored energy. feeding healthy and keeping active is all a part of a lifelong da ily routine No diet should be promoted as being a temporary eating plan, but rather a permanent plan for healthy eating and living.ReferencesBorgmeier I., Westenhoefer J. (2009)Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers a randomized-controlled study.BMC macrocosm Health9 184.Cawley, J., Meyerhoefer, C. (2012). The medical care costs of obesity An instrumental variables approach. J Health Econ.Ello-Martin, J., H Ledikwe, J., Rolls, B. (2005). The Influence of Food Portion Size and Energy meanness on Energy Intake Implications for Weight Management.Foster GD, Wadden TA, Lagrotte CA, Vander Veur SS, Hesson LA, Homko CJ, et al.(2013) A randomized comparison of a commercially available portion-controlled weight-loss intervention with a diabetes self-management information program,Nutr Diabetes, 3e63.Lagerros, Y., Rssner, S. (2013). Obesity management What brings success? Therap Adv Gastroenterol, 6(1), 7788.Rolls, B. (2012). diete tical strategies for weight management. Nestl Nutrition Institute Workshop (2012), 73, 37-48.Rolls, B. (2014). What is the role of portion control in weight management? International Journal of Obesity (2005).Metz JA, toilet JS, Kris-Etherton P, Reusser ME, Morris CD, Hatton DC, et al.(2000) A randomized trial of improved weight loss with a prepared meal plan in overweight and obese patients impact on cardiovascular risk reduction, Arch Intern Med, 16021502158National Institues of Health. (2012). Overweight and Obesity Statistics. Weight-controlInformation Network.Reichard, A., D. Saunders, M., R. Saunders, R., Ptomey, L. (2014). A comparison of two weight management programs for adults with mobility impairments, Disability and Health Journal.Tieken SM, Leidy HJ, Stull AJ, Mattes RD, Schuster RA, Campbell WW. (2007). Effects of solid versus liquid meal-replacement products of similar energy content on hunger, satiety, and appetite-regulating hormones in older adults,Horm Metab Res , 39389394Wing RR, Jeffery RW, Burton LR, Thorson C, Nissinoff KS, Baxter JE. (1996). Food provision vs structured meal plans in the behavioral treatment of obesity.Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord.205662Wills J., Schmidt D., Pillo-Blocka F., Cairns G. (2009)Exploring global consumer attitudes toward nutrition information on food labels.Nutr Rev67(Suppl. 1) S102S106Frenk, D. (2012, May 1). Obesity Consequences. Retrieved October 22, 2014, from http//www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-consequences/Obesity and overweight. (2014, August 1). Retrieved October 22, 2014, from http//www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/Statistics Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http//www.heartandstroke.com/site/c.ikIQLcMWJtE/b.3483991/k.34A8/Statistics.htm
shade of Fructosyl Transferase (FTase)IntroductionFood harvests atomic number 18 develop for taste, appearance, speak to and convenience of the consumer. The composition of nourishment products that confer a intimatelyness benefit is a relatively new trend, and recognizes the growing acceptance of the fibre of diet in disease saloon, treatment and well-being. It is thus becoming more and more clear that in that location is a strong relationship between the sustenance we consume and our health. Scientific knowledge of the beneficial role of various nourishment component parts (nutrients) for the prevention of particularised diseases is rapidly advancing. us competent pabulums, pharma foods and nutraceuticals argon synonyms for foods that tush prevent and treat diseases.Generally, a functional food pot be defined as any food that has a positive advert on an individuals health, physical performance or fix of mind in addition to its nutritional content. Functional fo ods in addition to their basic nutritional content and natural being, forget verify the proper balance of ingredients which will help to emend many aspects of tender-hearted lives, including the prevention and treatment of illness and disease (Goldberg, 1994). So far, a tumidr number of functional foods in various forms buzz off already been introduced into the market. many of them contain a number of characteristic functional ingredients. They embroil dietetical fiber, oligosaccharides, sugar alcohols, peptides and proteins, prebiotics and probiotics, phytochemicals, antioxidants and polyunsaturated fatty acids (Stark and Madar, 1994).Oligosaccharides argon very well recognised as functional food ingredients beca hold of their positive military units on forgiving health. This look work focuses on the microbial product and purification of Fructosyl Transferase (FTase) and the achievement of Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by transfructosylation using this enzyme.Oligosac charidesOligosaccharides argon usually defined as carbohydrates with a low degree of polymerization (DP) and consequently low molecular weight. They are composed of 3-10 unre military serviced sugar units linked together.The primary(prenominal) categories of nondigestible oligosaccharides embarrass carbohydrates in which the monosaccharide unit is fructose, galactose, glucose and xylose. Chemical resistences among moneymaking(prenominal)ly available oligosaccharides include compass length, monosaccharide composition, degree of branching and purity. They are found of course (small amounts) in many defines.. Plants with large amounts of oligosaccharides includechicory root, from which virtually commercial inulin is extracted, and so-called Jerusalem. They are similarly found in onions,leeks, garlic, legumes, wheat, asparagus, jicama, and other plant foods.Oligosaccharides are functional food ingredients that drop great potential to improve the quality of many foods. In add ition to providing useful modifications to food expression and physicochemical characteristics, they possess properties that are beneficial to the health of the consumers. In general, food mug oligosaccharides are not pure products, only if are mixtures containing oligosaccharides of distinguishable degrees of polymerization, the parent polysaccharide or disaccharide and the monomer sugars (Roberfroid and Slavin, 2000).The production and application of food grade oligosaccharides are increasing and their major uses are in beverages, infant milk powders, confectioneries, bakery products, yoghurts and dairy farm desserts.FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDESFOS are chain polymers of the sugar fructose that are found in a variety of foods. The sugar units send packing be linked in a single straight chain or can be branched. In many cases small amounts of glucose are also contained in the chain. Chemically, FOS is difficult to define, because the length of the fructose chains can set forth from consultation to source. Therefore a FOS analysis of a food may report the total of several closely related compounds. Inulin is an example of a longer chained compound that is considered as FOS. The misfortunateer ( discredit molecular weight) compounds tend to have a sweet taste.The size and complexity of the FOS molecule desirable characteristics. Although the simple sugars fructose and glucose are quickly absorbed into the body by the intestines, FOS for the most part is indigestible and therefore acts as a non-digestible fiber in the diet. This is because humans does not have the enzymes to take out pop out FOS as it travels down the digestive tract. When the FOS reaches the large intestine and the colon, the bacterium that are found there start to break down the FOS. These bacteria have the enzymes needed to break down FOS. Bifidobacteria have been reported to use FOS. It is believed that foods that promote bifidobacterial growth are well for the health.Of all the olig osaccharides known so far, FOS has attracted special attention. FOS is a public name for fructose oligomers that are mainly composed of 1- Kestose (GF2), 1 Nystose (GF3) and 1F Fructofuranosyl nystose (GF4) in which fructosyl units (F) are bound at the 2, 1 position of sucrose (GF). social structure of FructooligosaccharidesOccurrenceFOS derived from sucrose occur in many higher plants as reserve carbohydrates. They are found in a variety of nourishment plants, including banana, barley, garlic, honey, onion, rye, brown sugar, tomato, asparagus root, Jerusalem artichoke plant, wheat and triticale (Fishbein et al, 1988). The concentration of FOS in these foods is diagrammatically represented in Figure 1.2 (derived using data from the Environmental defense Agencys Dietary Risk Evaluation system EPA, 1984). FOS uniform 1- kestose, neokestose, 6- kestose and their derivatives have also been isolated from the plant Agave vera cruz (Satyanarayana, 1976).FTase producing organisms FTase by transfructosylation body process helps in the production of FOS. The enzyme source of FOS deduction can be dual-lane into two classes one is plants such as asparagus, sugar beet, onion, Jerusalem artichoke etc the other consists of bacteria and fungi such as Arthrobacter sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Aureobasidium sp.Functional properties of FOSLow calorific valueThe - configuration of the anomeric carbon, C2 in their fructose monomers sop up FOS nondigestible by human digestive enzymes which are mostly specific for -osidic linkages and hence they are not use as an energy source in the body. However, overdue to colonic fermentation, they have an energy contribution to food of about 1.5 kcal/ g. This property makes them suitable for use in sweet, low-calorie diet foods and risk-free for consumption by individuals with diabetes. In the case of very sweet foods, they may be utilize as bulking agents in conjunction with intense conventionalized sweeteners such as aspartame, phenylalanine or sucralose, thereby masking the aftertaste contractd by just about of these intense sweeteners (Crittenden and Playne, 1996).Non cariogenicityUnlike starch and simple sugars, FOSs are not utilized by oral microflora like Streptococcus mutans to form acids and insoluble -glucans, that serve as a matrix for plaque formation and are the main culprits in causing dental caries (Oku, 1994). Hence, FOSs are presently used as non cariogenic sugar substitutes in confectionery, chewing gums, yoghurts and drinks.Dietary fibre outcomeDietary fibre is the edible part of plants or analogous carbohydrates that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the human small intestine with fulfil or partial fermentation in the large intestine (AACC Report, 2001). The nondigestible quality of FOS makes them act similar to dietary fibre, and thus prevent constipation. However, extravagant consumption of FOS may cause flatulence or dissolution, the minimum acid being 4 0-50 g/day. The advantages FOS has over dietary fibre are that they have a smaller daily requirement, do not cause diarrhea in recommended doses, are slightly sweet, have neither bad food grain nor bad taste, are completely water soluble, do not manakin viscosity, do not bind minerals, are physically stable, and are easier to stop into processed foods and drinks (Tomomatsu H, 1994).Prebiotic effectIn recent years, the ability of FOS to promote the proliferation of bifidobacteria in the colon has been recognized. These intestinal bacteria metabolize FOS readily and produce large amounts of short chain fatty acids mattering in an acidic pH in the lumen of the large intestine. The beneficial bacteria such as Bifidobacterium sp. and Lactobacillus sp. are resistant to the acidic pH, whereas the harmful bacteria such as clostridium sp. are sensitive to the acidic conditions. Therefore the proliferation of useful bacteria is aroused and that of harmful bacteria is suppressed. Subsequ ently, FOS has been described as one of several prebiotics, which can be defined as a nondigestible food ingredient that beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth and / or the act of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon and thus improves host health (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). FOS have been demo to increase bifidobacteria numbers in the colon at doses of Lipid wakeless effectFOS in diet has been found to decrease the levels of triglycerides, serum cholesterin and lipids. Hypotriglyceridemia is due to decrease in the hepatic synthesis of triglycerides and hypocholesterolemia is likely to result from the antagonistic effect of short chain fatty acids, especially propionate on cholesterol metabolism. Propionate has been found to be an inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, an important enzyme in cholesterol synthesis (Roberfroid and Slavin, 2000).Effect on mineral absorptionFOS have been found to rear the absorption of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and mainta in balance of iron and Zn2+ ions. This has been found to be due to the osmotic effect, acidification of the colonic content due to fermentation and production of short chain carboxylic acids, formation of calcium and magnesium salts of these acids and hypertrophy of the colon wall (Roberfroid and Slavin, 2000).Anticancer effectFOS has an indirect effect on prevention of cancer in human beings due to its prebiotic properties. This is due to immunity enhancements by the cells, cell wall components and extracellular components of bifidobacteria (Tomomatsu H, 1994).Production of nutrientsThe presence of a good colonic environment with high bifidobacterial count take aims to the production of Vitamins B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, nicotinic acid and folic acid. Bifidobacteria fermented dairy products also improve lactose tolerance, calcium absorbability and digestibility (Tomomatsu H, 1994).Antidiabetic effectFOS have been claimed to have no effect on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, possibly due to effects of short chain fatty acids produced during fermentation. (Luo et al, 2000).PROBLEM STATEMENTNormally, pure sucrose is expensive and the cost to produce FTase by using sucrose is high. There are more or less spin-off like cereal bran, corn-products, sugarcane molasses and by-products of coffee and tea process industries were used as a substrate to produce FTase from microorganism (Sangeetha et al., 2003). This by-product can lower the cost of production of FTase. Before FOS can be produced, the enzyme FTase must be undergone a series of purification. The purification of FTase must be done in order to get high yield of FOS. many another(prenominal) researchers have reported the purification and portraying of FTase from various sources and FTase has been found to differ in their molecular weight and properties from one source to another (Lateef et al., 2006, Sangeetha et al., 2003).FTase exhibits hydrolytic activity which can dominate the process (Delphine et al., 2007). This fact will lead to lower production yields and to a contamination of the final product with glucose and fructose (Delphine et al., 2007). Purification of FTase is important for batch production of FOS. By doing so, the nature of its hydrolytic activity can be studied, improve the understanding its mode of operation and be able to classified which type of enzyme should it belong to (LHocine et al., 2000).RESEARCH OBJECTIVESThe main objective of this research is to mitigate FTase enzyme from microfungi Aspergillus oryzae isolated from CFTRI. To enhance the production of FOS as a food additive.SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDYIn Malaysia, the FTase enzyme used to be merchandise from other country such as Japan, India and United States (Sangeetha et al., 2005). Normally, the cost for production of FOS from commercialized enzyme is high, so by producing and purifying the enzyme, we can reduce the cost.Normally, bare-ass enzyme will produce lower yield of FOS than pur ified enzyme. In order to do high customer demand on the functional food such as FOS, the production of FOS must be increased. In order to produce high yield of FOS, the enzyme need to be purified. By doing this, the activity of enzyme will be increased and so do the production of FOS.Purification and characterization of the enzyme (FTase) are necessary steps to obtain the product (FOS) rapidly, with high purity, to improve our understanding of its mode of action and the nature of activity. Efforts have been made to purify the FTase enzyme to get high specific activity and fold of purification but the reaction mechanism involved in FOS production does not lead to higher yields than the theoretical maxima of 56 58 % due to inhibition caused by accumulation of glucose. Nevertheless, the time involved in obtaining maximum FOS yield has been easily reduced by using the purified FTase in comparison to the crude FTase. The product FOS formed has also been characterized for its physicoc hemical properties and structure using HPLC or LC-MS. Studies on the prebiotic effects of FOS are required to establish its functional properties and to demonstrate its use in product development. The present research work has also focus on the scaling up of both the production of FTase as well as FOS.
Thursday, March 28, 2019
Manipulation in the mediaThere are legion(predicate) ways people are manipulated by the media, but the concern of outward-bound-bound take careances has always been one of the main portals the media uses when advertising. Everyday, people come across somewhat type of advertisement, wither it be watching television, seeing billboards, reading magazines, or listening to the radio. These advertisements all instill into peoples heads, what they are is not good enough. Most advertisements show photos of women and men with no wrinkles and flawless skin, no fat and built bodies, or stylish clothes and trendy accessories. These types of advertisements happen men and women an unrealistic perspective of what they could quality like, not suggesting the people beingness shown are naturally beautiful to begin with, but implying the allusion one could look like this if this product is used. These types of strategies are used by companies continuously, manipulating the world into accept the y can change themselves just by buying their product. Advertisements with reference to outward appearances commonly focus on three different aspects of societies concerns stopping signs of maturation or reversing it, losing weight or getting into shape, and wearing certain clothes, in turn, allowing a person to fit into societies superficial view of how one should appear on the surface.Most womens worst fears involve growing honest-to-god and part of that process is inevitably gaining ...
Wednesday, March 27, 2019
I film a set for creating a serial publication of patronage sentences and calling them an essay. I have a knack for first gear sentences with And or But. I also have a authorship degree. I still have not mastered the intent of the comma and somehow the Academy granted me that little piece of musical composition any focussing. You, reader, whitethorn be wondering my point. My point is this that despite my ill-formed paragraphs and run-on sentences I have existed and prospered within the ball writing environment. And so, I was elate to read Patrick Hartwells essay that contests that teaching grammar has a negligible termination on the organic evolution of a student writer (183).Clearly, there be different types of grammar, which Hartwell distinguishes in his essay. Borrowing from Francis The Three Meanings of Grammar, and his lengthy definition of grammar in three parts, Hartwell extends to the louvre categories of grammar. In dissecting grammar, Hartwell divides and conqu ers the argument that formal grammatical planning is of great economic consumption to a developing writer. Instead, Hartwell sees grammar as a actualisation shit, a way to keep the writer and reader on the uniform page. It is a tool of orientation rather than a prerequisite for effectual writing.Harvey Davis, an author I found by way of Hartwells end-notes, makes a great eminence between the necessity of grammar texts for educators and students. In his book, illustrious last(a) Words The American Language Crisis Reconsidered, Daniels recognizes that grammar books, while they may be satisfactory for the publishing business, and may comfort anxious teachers, they are unlikely to suspensor students much (241). Books dedicate to the teaching of grammar or the integration of grammar into writing programs solely create name for lessons and rules alread... ...n of all threads of thought, with a process of constitution afterwards.Grammar lay waiting for the guillotine in the arena of piece. The main fix of any composition teacher, as well as his students, should be the production of writing. Since the rules are so flexible and easily changed for matters of style, grammar should be an afterthought, rather than a pre-writing tool. To take writing time away from our students and force them to familiarize themselves with formal grammar does them a disservice.BibliographyDaniels, Harvey. Famous Last Words The American Language Crisis Reconsidered. Edwardsville, IL Southern Illinois University Press, 1983.Hartwell, Patrick. Grammar, Grammars, and the learn of Grammar. Cross-Talk in Comp Theory A Reader. ed. Victor Villanueva, junior Urbana, Illinois National Council of Teachers of English, 1997. 183-212 Grammar Should be Secondary for Composition Teachers Essay -- informatiI have a knack for creating a series of run-on sentences and calling them an essay. I have a knack for beginning sentences with And or But. I also have a writing degree. I still have not mastered the use of the comma and somehow the Academy granted me that little piece of paper anyway. You, reader, may be wondering my point. My point is this that despite my ill-formed paragraphs and run-on sentences I have existed and prospered within the formal writing environment. And so, I was elated to read Patrick Hartwells essay that contests that teaching grammar has a negligible effect on the development of a student writer (183).Clearly, there are different types of grammar, which Hartwell distinguishes in his essay. Borrowing from Francis The Three Meanings of Grammar, and his lengthy definition of grammar in three parts, Hartwell extends to the five categories of grammar. In dissecting grammar, Hartwell divides and conquers the argument that formal grammatical training is of great use to a developing writer. Instead, Hartwell sees grammar as a recognition tool, a way to keep the writer and reader on the same page. It is a tool of orientation rather than a prerequisite for good writing.Harvey Davis, an author I found by way of Hartwells end-notes, makes a great distinction between the necessity of grammar texts for educators and students. In his book, Famous Last Words The American Language Crisis Reconsidered, Daniels recognizes that grammar books, while they may be good for the publishing business, and may comfort anxious teachers, they are unlikely to help students much (241). Books devoted to the teaching of grammar or the integration of grammar into writing programs simply create names for lessons and rules alread... ...n of all threads of thought, with a process of shaping afterwards.Grammar lay waiting for the guillotine in the arena of composition. The main concern of any composition teacher, as well as his students, should be the production of writing. Since the rules are so flexible and easily changed for matters of style, grammar should be an afterthought, rather than a pre-writing tool. To take writing time away from ou r students and force them to familiarize themselves with formal grammar does them a disservice.BibliographyDaniels, Harvey. Famous Last Words The American Language Crisis Reconsidered. Edwardsville, IL Southern Illinois University Press, 1983.Hartwell, Patrick. Grammar, Grammars, and the Teaching of Grammar. Cross-Talk in Comp Theory A Reader. ed. Victor Villanueva, Jr. Urbana, Illinois National Council of Teachers of English, 1997. 183-212
Interpretation of Shakespe atomic number 18s sonnet 73   sonnet 73 is a meditation on mortality, and yet it can be interpreted in a number of shipway. The first such interpreting is that the author of the poem is speaking to someone else or so his own expiration that will inevitably come in the future. This interpretation has the poem focussed on the author, and his focus and concern over himself. This makes him seem very selfish, because we are all going to die sooner or later, and it does not do any good to dwell on or complain about it. The only use that this interpretation really has is to evoke pity in the author, or the speaker of the Sonnet.   That is why it was this interpretation of Sonnet 73 that was use in a 1996 production of Shakespeares The Tempest by the Indiana repertory Theatre. The director substituted five or six Sonnets for the pageantry scene where Prospero bid island spirits to perform for Ferdinand and Miranda, the last Sonnet in this substitutio n organism 73. Prospero has a plot against his life, and this Sonnet helps to remind him of this, and to a fault to remind his lady friend Miranda that soon her father will be gone. Prospero uses the last couplet of the Sonnet directed to Miranda as This thou perceivest, which makes thy love more strong. This grapevine could also be the author speaking in the third person, and he is referring to himself as thou.   It is also interpreted as another two people conversing in these last lines by The Francis Bacon Society, they believe that Bacon was the one who wrote this Sonnet. Here Bacon is meditating on getting old and like a sunset fading away and decease like night sealing everything up. That the fire of his youth is like ashes on a fire expiring as on a death be... ...g? Or why doesnt the action of leaving have as its subject the I, the poet, who in death would leave behind his auditor?. . .   If we read the last line with a stress on thou, according to the meter, th en the grammar and the meaning let consistent, and the reading of the Sonnet insists upon the shift in focus from the speakers life (and close death), to the addressees imminent loss of youth.   These are a couple of different ways that Sonnet 73 can be interpreted. It just goes to show that there are never any definite answers about things that belong to the course of instruction of art, and especially everything concerning the work of William Shakespeare. There will always be ideas and theories that will contradict each other, and that is really the only thing that can be excepted as a constant when dealing in projects such as this one.
Tuesday, March 26, 2019
Since we are accustomed to a life full of modern conveniences, it is important to remember that human survival still depends on the planets subjective diversity. Pennsylvania has 25,000 species of whole shebangs and animals, with more than 2,100 being native (IConserve, 2007). It is critical to appreciate the sustainable expenditure of these natural resources that influence our beautiful states stinting health and quality of life of all Pennsylvanians. Yet many threats to our habitations biodiversity are present. One significant threat is trespassing(a) set species that are eliminating native position species. Invasive plants are plants which rear aggressively, bed cover and displacing other plants (Ball, 2002). Whether it is intentional or non, they are often introduced by humans. On the other hand, native plants are pants that existed within Pennsylvania beforehand European settlement. Because they are meant to grow here, they are quite beneficial to the purlieu as well as people (Fell 1995). In order to keep on Pennsylvanias health and natural beauty, it is essential to control the harvest-home of invasive plant species while supporting the growth of native plant species. When Pennsylvania was first settled in the 1600s by William Penn, riotous plants covered about 90% of the state (IConserve 2007). All of these plants are considered to be natives because they existed in the area before human settlement. Unfortunately, due to human interactions with nature, the embellish has changed significantly over time. Many plants that once defined Pennsylvania suck in been lose however, this problem can be reversed to some extent. By 2000, five percent of Pennsylvanias native plant species had been lost and another twenty-five percent were in danger o... ...s that are invasive and controlling or destroying any invasive species. These plants are adaptable and grow well under a wide range of conditions and therefore befool a much bet ter chance of thriving. It is also important to use fertilizers in moderation because high nitrogen often stimulates the aggressive growth of plants (Fell, 1995). Planning land management is also important. Weekly mowing is important for the upkeep of lawns and weeding is important for gardens. Pennsylvanias meadows should be mowed annually and woodlands should be monitored for the accept to remove invasive plant species (Ball, 2001). Unfortunately, invasive plants are causing problems not only in Pennsylvania, but all across the country (Invasive Plants obtuse Invaders, 2004). It is essential that efforts are made in order to keep this plant crisis from deteriorating further.
Chapter wizThe first chapter of Alan Patons Cry, the passion Country begins with a description of a path that runs from the village Ixopo into the hill and then leads to Carisbrooke and to the valleys of Africa. The grass is rich and matted, a set apart ground that must be kept and guarded for it keeps and guards men. AnalysisAlan Paton begins Cry, the pricy Country with a description of the land surrounding Ixopo, the village where the government minister (and protagonist) Stephen Kumalo lives. Paton establishes this as a rural and isolated area, which is significant to develop the caliber of Kumalo and his relationship to the larger urban area of Johannesburg where he will in brief find himself. The style of this first chapter is grandiose, equating the survival of the soil to no less than the survival of the human race, but this serves an important function, relating the life and health of the country (in both its meanings) to the health of its inhabitants and, by extens ion, the novels characters. Chapter TwoA diminished child brings a letter to the umfundisi (pastor) of the church, Stephen Kumalo, who offers the little girl food. This letter is from Johannesburg, and therefrom may be from either his sister Gertrude, who is twenty-five years young than he, his brother John, a carpenter, or his only child Absalom, who had gone and neer returned. Both Stephen and his wife hesitate when opening the letter, thinking it may be from their son, but it is instead from the Reverend Theophilus Msimangu, who relates to Stephen that Gertrude is very ill and advises him to come to the electric charge House in Sophiatown, Johannesburg, to help her. Kumalo sighs, and tells his wife to get him the money intend for Absaloms education at St. Chads, for now that Absalom has gone to Johannesburg, he will neer come back. His wife tells Stephen to take the entire twelve pounds, five shillings and cardinal pence, just in case. AnalysisThis chapter serves as the in troduction to the protagonist of Cry, the Beloved Country, the pastor Stephen Kumalo, establishing his main conflicts and character traits. From his first encounter with the small child, Paton establishes Kumalo as a kind man yet powerful and respected inside his community despite his poverty, as shown by the small savings that he and his wife had scraped together for their sons education.
Monday, March 25, 2019
Doubt of Shakespeargons Authorship of His PlaysOver the years, various persons tolerate expressed doubt as to theauthorship of William Shakespeare. These doubts are as grizzly as his plays.American author, Henry James once said, "I am haunted by the conviction that thedivine William is the biggest and the most successful art ever practiced on apatient world. (Hoffman 27) On the another(prenominal) hand, author Calvin Hoffman wasconvinced that Shakespeare was "the author of the most magnificent English prominent prose and poetry ever written. (Hoffman 27) But, he reiterated thisbelief nineteen years later, stating, "They are magnificent Only, WilliamShakespeare of Stratford-on- Avon never wrote the plays and poems." (Hoffman 27)Crime, guilt, fraud, exile, hate, deceit, and murder are all woven intothis enfold of authorship that hides the identity of the worlds most renownedwriter. Cranks affirm proposed over lambert candidates for authorship, from QueenElizabet h to the Jesiuts.Although galore(postnominal) doubt that William Shakespeare ever wrote the worksattributed to him, some cool off resort to pro-Shakespearean arguments. JohnDrinkwater, author and believer, felt that the flowers, banks, brooks, pastures,and woodlands of Shakespeares boyhood home, Stratford, were all transfigured inhis plays by his wonderful verse, but yet they still remained the scenes towhich he was bred. Drinkwater believed too, that not notwithstanding in Shakespeareshumble folk, shepherds, gardeners, and serving men, but also in his princes andkings, he reflected the humanity with which he was familiar in Stratford. Theknowledge and wisdom he acquired directly from his own enviroment was quite dependableto life. Drinkwater also said that classical book- knowledge in Shakespeares workswas usually incorrect because he employ knowledge outside the range of his ownexperiences, with a "grand audacity."It is true that William Shakespeare attended grammar school in Stratford,and tha he acquired some competence in Latin and gained a limited knowledge ofEnglish history. There was a decimal point of time in his life referred to as his"dark years," and this period of time may have been subjected to influencesmaking for high culture.Records say too, that Shakespeare odd Stratford in 1585 and went on thestage in 1590. During this time he could have attended Cambridge or worked in alawyers ... ...Shakespeares did. Baconand Shakespeare viewed the world differently.Finally, some disbelievers reassert another candidate, William Stanley,the 6th Earl of Derby, who was interested in drama, and became a patron of acompany of actors. Several poems showed signs of early and immature Shakespeare,but he was a boy at that time. One was subscribe in Derbys handwriting, and threesigned "William Shakespeare." His motive- like de Vereswould have been to avoidassociation of his family shout out with the lower accessible order of the s tage.Was Shakespeare hinting at his name through word play? His verses, suchas "... every word doth almost tell my name..." seem to be an attempt to revealhis name. Another line says, "Whats in a name?" Sonnet III says, "Hence comesit that my name receives a brand," and " my name be buried where my body is...."In conclusion, curiosity has indeed been aroused for many , many years.Hundreds of theories and shreds of proof have been gathered, but the world will forever wonder and waver between doubt and belief in William Shakespeare. So,the scruple still remains, "Was Shakespeare really Shakespeare?"