Friday, May 31, 2019

Corporate Law Essay -- Business, Free Market

Harmonization of private international law aspects concerning plentys is the best way to resolve the uncertainties surrounding corporal cross-border mobility. Harmonization of substantive laws concerning corporations is, on the other hand, unattainable and undesirable? Discuss in relation to(i) Regulating comp each law matters AND(ii) Regulating their insolvency.1.Introduction ultramodern day corporations with their multilateral nature have created their owned corporate governance regime. Proponents argue that this corporation ar replacing states and brining their own current in domain of a functions economy especially the free market. Further, with the wave of globalization these firms have established themselves so firmly in the local and cross border markets that are beyond the imagination as to compare to the perception when the idea of company was formally conceived in legislative instrument. The ongoing process of globalization has also provided corporation with profound ch anges in the way they conduct their business. Today international trans exertions are not merely exchange of goods with the foreigner as was in the new past. Now, corporations are involved in every transaction and in that respect are number of agreements and process going in between such transactions. Comparatively there are more complex legal regimes on one hand, and liberty of abolition of national barriers with great competition. Today, corporations have a number of methods to capture any market around the globe. There are thin line for demarcation of the area of private international law and public international law as both govern the relationship between international person and states or international person with international person or both depending on th... ...ng. FN9 That is, the con-tracts between shareholders and other constituencies and the constitution between shareholders and managers create appropriate incentives for the value of the firm to be maximised and dist ributed amongst the various claimants. The need for judicial intervention should be limited to particular(a) cases (although the definition of exceptional may be debated). Much attention has been paid to the role of contracts in the theory of the firm, but the role of the constitution as a regulator of collective action by shareholders has not been analysed systematically. FN10 In the section that follows, I initially *422 analyse the role of organisational constitutions in regulating collective action in general terms, having regard to the constitutional economics of James Buchanan and Gordon Tullock. FN11 I then apply this model to corporations.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Schutz?s theory Essay -- essays research papers

In todays paper, I will be analysis personal relationship using Schutzs theory of interpersonal leads. jibe to Communication Making Connection by William J. Seiler and Melissa L. Beall, Schutzs theory implies that we have three needs the need for affection, the need for inclusion, and the need for control. match to Schutzs theory, the need for affection is the need to feel likeable or lovable. If various people like a specific person, that person has effectively fulfill this need and that need is referred as personal. Someone who is unable to fulfill this need is labeled either underpersonal or overpersonal. Personal individuals want to be liked, but they do not consider being liked by everyone essential for happiness. Underpersonal people avoid emotional commitments or involvement with others. Overpersonal individuals will often go to the extremes to ensure acceptance by others.It is my belief that, I am a personal individual. Im the type of person that feels like Im capable of t ransaction with anyone that I come in contact with. Many people that Ive encounter over the years like my football teammate feel that Im cocky nevertheless I tell them that Im just confident. My ex-girlfriend, shontell, on the other hand is more an overpersonal type of individual. She needs to be at the center of attention in order to ensure that she is acceptance by she peers. She will not make a decision without someone approval. According to Schutzs theory, the interpersonal ne...

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Research Report: The Great Gatsby :: essays research papers fc

search Report The Great GatsbyIn The Great Gatsby A Criticism of American hostel, author Ned Mack discusses how F. Scott Fitzgerald criticizes the American Society in the 1920s for its trend to waste, advertise, encourage superficial relationships, and an obsession with appearances. All four of these things are very evident in the novel, and Mack provided breaks all(prenominal) of them down individually.Mack talks about how the valley of Ashes is an example of people being wasteful in the 1920s. People in America subroutine what they involve and when they want and leave the remains or waste, you might call it, behind for the un-wealthy to clean up. The valley of ashes was once a flourishing town, only was use until it was no longer valuable and was thus abandoned. (qtd. In Mack) This is very true the rich people in the novel were by no means conservationist. They would not commend twice about using things in excess and then discarding them how they please.Advertising plays a massive role in this novel. Mack says, The billboard in the Valley of Ashes is held above the rest of the town and represents society worshipping advert (2). This is evident in the novel not only are business advertised but in a way people are always advertising themselves. By talking about their own business or even worse lay themselves on display and advertising themselves, but not as people, but more like objects and how wealthy they are. An example of this is when Mr. And Mrs. Mckee are at myrtles party and the narrator Nick is talking about the Mckees and he says referring to Mrs. Mckee, She told me with pride her husband had photographed her a hundred and twenty-seven times since they had been married (qtd. In Mack) Subconsciously, Mrs. Mckee is advertising her husband and that he is a photographer.Mack goes on to talk about the American obsession with appearance that is shown throughout the novel. An example of this would be that Gatsby has a huge library filled with bo oks that have never been opened. Gatsby is just trying to be someone that he is not in order to fit a received image. Another character obsessed with her appearance and how people perceive her is Myrtle. At her party, she pretends that she has a kitchen full of servants who are waiting on herwhen in existence she doesnt.Research Report The Great Gatsby essays research papers fc Research Report The Great GatsbyIn The Great Gatsby A Criticism of American Society, author Ned Mack discusses how F. Scott Fitzgerald criticizes the American Society in the 1920s for its trend to waste, advertise, encourage superficial relationships, and an obsession with appearances. All four of these things are very evident in the novel, and Mack just breaks each of them down individually.Mack talks about how the Valley of Ashes is an example of people being wasteful in the 1920s. People in America use what they want and when they want and leave the remains or waste, you might call it, behind for the un-wealthy to clean up. The valley of ashes was once a flourishing town, but was used until it was no longer valuable and was thus abandoned. (qtd. In Mack) This is very true the rich people in the novel were by no means conservationist. They would not think twice about using things in excess and then discarding them how they please.Advertising plays a huge role in this novel. Mack says, The billboard in the Valley of Ashes is held above the rest of the town and represents society worshipping advertising (2). This is evident in the novel not only are business advertised but in a way people are always advertising themselves. By talking about their own business or even worse putting themselves on display and advertising themselves, but not as people, but more like objects and how wealthy they are. An example of this is when Mr. And Mrs. Mckee are at Myrtles party and the narrator Nick is talking about the Mckees and he says referring to Mrs. Mckee, She told me with pride her husband had photographed her a hundred and twenty-seven times since they had been married (qtd. In Mack) Subconsciously, Mrs. Mckee is advertising her husband and that he is a photographer.Mack goes on to talk about the American obsession with appearance that is shown throughout the novel. An example of this would be that Gatsby has a huge library filled with books that have never been opened. Gatsby is just trying to be someone that he is not in order to fit a certain image. Another character obsessed with her appearance and how people perceive her is Myrtle. At her party, she pretends that she has a kitchen full of servants who are waiting on herwhen in reality she doesnt.

Massage Therapy :: Essays Papers

Massage TherapyWhats the easiest and quickest way to take a mini-vacation, and feel totally rejuvenated, renewed and rewarded? Do you indirect request a well paying job that can give this feeling to you and your clients? If so I have the perfect job for you. But earlier I live on to tell you about it you have to have an open mind and realize this job does take close to work. Im divergence to tell you some of the things you might have to do, the reasons its a growing industry, places you can get this job, the wages, the amount of preparation you need and where to get it, the curriculum of the disciplines, some of the skills you need, and how to trigger preparing for this job now. Of course, you want to fill out the career Im talking about Its massage therapy I know, I know, your probably thinking so I interference someones back big whoop But theres more to massage therapy than that. thither are some different things that a massage therapist must do. First off they have to find somewhere to work and get clients, but thats the obvious. There are likewise things they have to do after this, different than just massage. In an interview with Stephanie Melroy, who owns and runs The Massage Studio in Holdrege, she said to me, A mass of high school girls are really interested in massage therapy but most of them dont realize all the work and education that it requires. The classes that you take arent the easiest either. You have to take a lot of anatomy and physiology, know every bone, muscle, and nerve and they work. Youll to prepare the client before the massage, which might accept applying heat, alcohol, lubricants, salt, or other rubbing compounds. Of course the massage therapist will massage the client using kneading, rubbing, and/or stroking movements. You also need to know different types of diseases and flake off irritations because if they have a certain kind of disease you cant treat them. But there are also some types of massag e or therapy that they might do. This includes Hydrotherapy, Swedish massage, Sports massage, Shiatsu, Trager, Hellerwork, Polarity, Reflexology, Acupressure, Rolfing, and many more. Other than a manual massage they might also use mechanical or galvanic machines as well.Massage Therapy Essays PapersMassage TherapyWhats the easiest and quickest way to take a mini-vacation, and feel totally rejuvenated, renewed and rewarded? Do you want a well paying job that can give this feeling to you and your clients? If so I have the perfect job for you. But before I start to tell you about it you have to have an open mind and realize this job does take some work. Im going to tell you some of the things you might have to do, the reasons its a growing industry, places you can get this job, the wages, the amount of education you need and where to get it, the curriculum of the schools, some of the skills you need, and how to start preparing for this job now. Of course, you want to know the career Im talking about Its massage therapy I know, I know, your probably thinking so I rub someones back big whoop But theres more to massage therapy than that. There are many different things that a massage therapist must do. First off they have to find somewhere to work and get clients, but thats the obvious. There are also things they have to do after this, other than just massage. In an interview with Stephanie Melroy, who owns and runs The Massage Studio in Holdrege, she said to me, A lot of high school girls are really interested in massage therapy but most of them dont realize all the work and education that it requires. The classes that you take arent the easiest either. You have to take a lot of anatomy and physiology, know every bone, muscle, and nerve and they work. Youll to prepare the client before the massage, which might include applying heat, alcohol, lubricants, salt, or other rubbing compounds. Of course the massage therapist will massage the client us ing kneading, rubbing, and/or stroking movements. You also need to know different types of diseases and skin irritations because if they have a certain kind of disease you cant treat them. But there are also many types of massage or therapy that they might do. This includes Hydrotherapy, Swedish massage, Sports massage, Shiatsu, Trager, Hellerwork, Polarity, Reflexology, Acupressure, Rolfing, and many more. Other than a manual massage they might also use mechanical or electrical machines as well.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Sweetheart of the Song of Tra Bong as Metaphor Essay example -- Things

Sweetheart of the Song of Tra Bong as Metaphor The Vietnam War is a strange and unexplainable event in American history. The controversies surrounding the American involvement in Vietnam and the need for Vietnam veterans to tell their stories of the war are prevalent in the post-Vietnam culture of America. The stories that will last forever are those that swirl masking and forth across the border between trivia and bedlam, the mad and the mundane(89). The story of the sweetheart of the Song of Tra Bong explains this quote of the veteran stories never pull out exact sense, just they are stories from a war that never quite made exact sense either. The story of Sweetheart of the Song of Tra Bong, involving a spring chicken girl coming to Vietnam for her boyfriend, becomes a illustration for the rite of passage that a young spend would experience during his service in Vietnam. The other soldiers in the medical detachment were shocked and amazed at the arrival of bloody shame Anne , Mark Fossies girlfriend. She arrived in a typical Americana glory, with her strawberry ice cream complexion, and in a somewhat lost and tired daze. Her journey was a myriad of plane connections and layovers. Even in her arrival a metaphor is seen as to how a soldier would arrive in Vietnam. The exact arrival of soldiers into the war is somewhat a confusing and shocking fact of debate. Mary Anne was only seventeen when she arrived in Vietnam, but the soldiers over fighting were not much older than her, many the exact same age. After the initial shock of landing in Vietnam wore off, Mary Anne became funny of her surroundings and what was going on in the war. This also is what a young soldier would experience during his first days of service, and he was trying to u... ...ut the hidden thoughts and feelings of the cashier are the real things that need to be examined. The Vietnam War is so colluded with uncertainties that its meaning and questions of why are still lingering in the m inds of citizens of the United States. Although this interpretation of the metaphor is not one that many adhere to when they first read the story, it is one that deserves some attention. The story can be seen as this transformation of the soldier small-arm serving in Vietnam. This story explains some of the smaller battles that the soldiers went through. They fought for their own identity, killing, and survival. All these battles can be seen through Mary Anne and her trails while in Vietnam. The story of Mary Anne ends with her going to the jungles of Vietnam never to be seen again, and this happens to the soldiers, they will always have Vietnam in them.

Sweetheart of the Song of Tra Bong as Metaphor Essay example -- Things

Sweetheart of the Song of Tra Bong as Metaphor The Vietnam War is a strange and unexplainable event in American history. The controversies surrounding the American involvement in Vietnam and the need for Vietnam veterans to tell their stories of the war are prevalent in the post-Vietnam culture of America. The stories that will last forever are those that swirl stick out and forth across the border between trivia and bedlam, the mad and the mundane(89). The story of the sweetheart of the Song of Tra Bong explains this quote of the veteran stories never withdraw exact sense, still they are stories from a war that never quite made exact sense either. The story of Sweetheart of the Song of Tra Bong, involving a boylike girl coming to Vietnam for her boyfriend, becomes a allegory for the rite of passage that a young soldier would experience during his service in Vietnam. The other soldiers in the medical detachment were shocked and amazed at the arrival of bloody shame Anne, Mark F ossies girlfriend. She arrived in a typical Americana glory, with her strawberry ice cream complexion, and in a somewhat lost and tired daze. Her journey was a myriad of plane connections and layovers. Even in her arrival a metaphor is seen as to how a soldier would arrive in Vietnam. The exact arrival of soldiers into the war is somewhat a confusing and shocking fact of debate. Mary Anne was only seventeen when she arrived in Vietnam, but the soldiers over fighting were not much older than her, many the exact same age. After the initial shock of landing in Vietnam wore off, Mary Anne became inquiring of her surroundings and what was going on in the war. This also is what a young soldier would experience during his first days of service, and he was trying to u... ...ut the hidden thoughts and feelings of the storyteller are the real things that need to be examined. The Vietnam War is so colluded with uncertainties that its meaning and questions of why are still lingering in the mi nds of citizens of the United States. Although this interpretation of the metaphor is not one that many adhere to when they first read the story, it is one that deserves some attention. The story can be seen as this transformation of the soldier go serving in Vietnam. This story explains some of the smaller battles that the soldiers went through. They fought for their own identity, killing, and survival. All these battles can be seen through Mary Anne and her trails while in Vietnam. The story of Mary Anne ends with her going to the jungles of Vietnam never to be seen again, and this happens to the soldiers, they will always have Vietnam in them.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Health Care Challenges Memo Essay

There are many challenges that happen within the health care field. The most important is protecting the endurings in-person breeding and who is able to access this reading. The National Health Information Network (NHIN) was formed to help improve upon the sharing of health care data. This was to help link data together for all involved to keep data secure when transferring over the internet. Within a health care organization a Hierarchy information system is used. This offers ease of network expansion and alteration for desktops used to be able to access necessary data. Both local area network (LAN) and large area network (WAN) are used in within the organization. Two or more LANs are committed by a hub. The LAN is connected from different areas to form an internetwork. Within the health care field it is important that protected health information (PHI) is kept protected. There are measures that contend to be taken to ensure that there are no unlicensed usages of this type o f information. The HIPAA standards must be followed at all times whether it is administrative or patient care departments.Physical safeguards are in place to protect the hardware and facilities that store PHI. The facility that houses the health IT is housed has limited physical access to authorized personal only. There are restrictions on workstations to have access with PHI. The health IT system has safeguards built in to protect health information and to be able to conceal of access to it. Measures are set to limit access of information. Steps are taken to encrypt, and decrypt information being ancestral electronically to guard against unauthorized access of the information.In order for the organization to have control over who access the information steps need to be taken to protect patient data from being stolen. To do this users have a unique user identification protocols, automatic logoff, emergency access steps, and encryption and decryption mechanisms. Auditcontrols need to be used to check activity of the IT system. Authentication of the entity or person that is attempting to access the information is a must to do. Transmission security of PHI that is being transmitted through the network needs to be protected.ReferencesHealth Information Management of a Strategic Resource (4th Ed.) (Abdelhak, Grostick, & Hanken) How Do I Ensure Security in Our System? (n.d). Retrieved from www.hrsa.gov/healthit/toolbox/HIVAIDSCAREtoolbox/SecurityAnd

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Jose Rizal, our national hero Essay

Jose Rizal, our national hero was one of the Filipinos who asked for reformsduring the Spanish era. This was one of his best contributions in building our nation. These reforms will grant the supreme dream of the reformists assimilation. Filipinoswill be given the rights that they deserve. Rizal choose to seek for reforms than tostart a revolution because he knew that Philippines was not yet ready to stand onits own (during his time). Rizal used his adult ideas in asking for reforms 5. Although Rizal hadrevolutionary ideas, he was not for armed revolution per se. He was more for thegradual and peaceful one. One that is catalyzed by the education of the Filipinopeople.He reasoned knocked out(p) that when subject people are educated, intelligent, and invitebecome aware of their human rights, they would have self-determination and they would strive to be free from their mother acres. When this revolution happens,drastic changes will occur in the political, economical, social, relig ious, andintelligence sphere of a society paving the behavior for its independence someday.Rizal reasoned out that when subject people are educated, intelligent, andhave become aware of their human rights, they would have self-determination andthey would strive to be free from their mother country. When this revolutionhappens, drastic changes will occur in the political, economical, social, religious,and intelligence sphere of a society paving the way for its independence someday.Even though Rizal did not actu all toldy support the revolution, we can say that healso contributed in this revolution. His works and writings were the corner stone of the revolution and he was thus an inspiration for the Katipuneros during thosetimes. Rizals life was devoted to his country (Philippines).MIDTERM1.Rizal shows his concern for a world community. This new order consists of nations which reaffirm faith in essential human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, in the equal right s of men and women . the nations would establish conditions of justice, social progress and better standards of life in big freedom . the people would practice tolerance , live together in peace and maintain good relations among themselves 2.3 To the Filipino Youth does behave a very strong one strong enough to persuade those who are to be persuaded-the Filipino youth themselves. As one of those individuals, I could truly feel the nationalistic spirit within me glow brighter the moment I finished reading the poem. It was like obese me that I am one of the alive hopes of our dear country and that through my abilities, expertise and knowledge of things, I am capable of protecting its freedom against oppressive forces that may come through.Furthermore, it was like telling me that together with my fellow youths, I am responsible for preserving the Philippines as a nation not for the foreigners but for me and the rest of the Filipinos. Finally yet most importantly, as to the sinceri ty of the poem, I can really consider To the Filipino Youth as indeed a work from the heart-no pretense, no plasticity and no discriminate of hidden motives. I can tell it so based on what I felt when I was reading the poem and the emotions that were expressed on each(prenominal) of the poems line. The fact that it came out during the Spanish era was also another thing that made me think that way.SEMIFINALS1. If you dont have a good EDUCATION agreement, your MOTHERLAND is lacking in luster. the KEY is that RIZAL isnt praising the Filipino education system hes describing an ideal system and IS VERY CAREFUL NOT TO SUGGEST that its the one he came out of.2. The first step carrying out his education philosophy is depends on mother. Rizal appealed to all mothers to do their best in educating their children. Love for honor, sincere and firm character, clear mind , clean conduct, noble action, love for ones fellowmen, respect for God. The country should not expect honor and prosperity so long as the education of the child is defective.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Computer Operating System Essay

The Windows series of operating arrangements produced by the Microsoft Corporation primarily make uptake of two file systems the File Allocation Table (FAT) and the New Technology File System (NTFS). Additionally, some versions of Windows NT also support the use of the High transaction File System (HPFS), a result of Microsofts joint developer involvement with IBM to produce the OS/2 operating system. (Duncan, 1989 Custer, 1994) Initially released with DOS, FAT makes use of a table which indexes information on which sections of the storage medium are free, unusable or taken up by files.Disk space is partitioned into distinct units know as sectors or clusters. There is no real organization to the directory structure of FAT, and as much(prenominal) free disk space can become distributed crosswise many different sectors, resulting in file space being allocated in discontiguous sectors. As such, data is highly fragmented and increases seek times. (Microsoft, 2007 Duncan 1989) HPFS w as first introduced with OS/2. It amend over the core functionality of the FAT system by introducing additional room for metadata attributes.Allocation units were changed from clusters to physical sectors of 512 bytes each, optimizing the disk space used for each file. HPFS directory entries also lease more attribute data they possess superstar sector FNODEs that serve as the control structure for each directory. Fragmentation is drastically reduced by allocating as much of a file in contiguous sectors. However, the HPFS is dependent on a Super Block which contains the control structures of the root word directory essentially the root FNODE. The Super Block is thus vulnerable to corruption or loss from a bad sector which can compromise an entire partitions useability.(Microsoft, 2007 Duncan, 1989) NTFS was designed to meet the growing demand for net servers and file sharing capabilities and it borrowed many of its concepts from the HPFS. (Kozierok, 2001) It is a journaling fil e system which permits greater recoverability by reverting files screen to a useable state in the event of power failures and system crashes that occur during file transactions. Additionally, it also makes use of an expanded meta-data system which allows administrators to set a wider variety of access and use controls to files.The NTFS also optimizes data by storing small files into the Master File Table of the NTFS itself. The larger system format limit provides centre that storage allocation units are much more refined as well. (Microsoft, 2004 2007) Memory management on Windows has an access limit of up to 4GB of physical storage, and as such, the allocation of memory to processes is limited by this cap. By using paging to transfer pages of data between main memory and an auxiliary storage device such as a hard drive, it can overcome some of the limitations of physical RAM and enable system processes to have their own 4GB logical address space.Additionally, Windows accords me mory protection to process in such a manner as to prevent access to one different, which is crucial to ensure that processes can operate concurrently without compromising their functionality. (Garg, 2008) Microsoft Windows is essentially an operating system that is built with multi-tasking in mind, which in effect, allows multiple programs to be executed simultaneously. Each application is composed of one or more processes, each of which provides the resources needed to execute a program.Processes are composed of threads, a discrete unit by which processor time is allocated and a single thread, called the primary thread initiates the process. Each thread may execute any portion of code in the process, including those already being executed by another thread. Virtual address space and system resources are shared by threads of a single process, though exception handlers, scheduling priority and other components that determine a threads importance and role within the context of a pr ocess. (Microsoft Developer Network, 2008)Windows possesses many of the essential features crucial to basic security such as authentication and access control, encryption schemes and protection profiles. However, the API for cryptography is easily compromised by the fact that it easily trusts multiple keys in certifying authority of access. As such, provided one code key is necessary to render a system vulnerable. Such a compromise is possible either through accidental divine revelation of the private key or when the certifying authority mistakenly issues a certificate.On the level of network security protocol, Windows makes use of IPSec, a cryptographic IP-level protection system which is an open standard in the industry, which functions not only through data encryption and verification of hosts but by detecting modifications made to data during network transit. (Quardt, 2004) Windows security is at its most problematic with regards to applications and non-operating system product s. Part of the problem is that for the purposes of consumer convenience, Microsoft Windows continues to be reliant on legacy applications that contain security threats that were of trivial outcome during their initial release.Furthermore, the signature architecture of Microsoft programs is to mix application code and data, such as ActiveX for example, can allow untrusted data from outside the system to activate code. (Quardt, 2004) Also, Windows approves digitally signed code even if it is supplied from outside of the system, which means that a system administrator must implicitly trust whoever has signed the code to have subjected it to assume code review. In essence, the problem with Windows security is that trust and certification is so decentralized as to deny systems administrators total control and authority over the trustworthiness of code.REFERENCESMicrosoft Corporation. (2007, May 7) Overview of FAT, HPFS and NTFS File Systems. Retrieved August 9, 2008 from http//support. microsoft. com/kb/100108 Microsoft Corporation (2004, May 5) Local File Systems for Windows. Retrieved August 9, 2008 http//download. microsoft. com/download/5/b/5/5b5bec17-ea71-4653-9539-204a672f11cf/LocFileSys. doc Duncan, R. (1989, September) project goals and implementation of the new High Performance File System. Microsoft Systems Journal, 4, 5, 1-13. Custer, H. (1994) Inside the Windows NT File System. Washington Microsoft Press. Kozierok, C. M. (2001, April 17).Overview and History of NTFS. PCGuide. Garg, P. Windows Memory Management. Intellectual Heaven. Retrieved August 10, 2008 from http//www. intellectualheaven. com/Articles/WinMM. pdf Microsoft Developer Network (2008, August 7). slightly Processes and Threads. Retrieved August 10, 2008 from http//msdn. microsoft. com/en-us/library/ms681917(VS. 85,printer). aspx Hart, J. M. (2004) Windows System Programming, 3rd Edition. Boston Addison-Wesley Professional. Quandt, S. (2004, May 25) Linux and Windows security compare d. Linux. com Retrieved August 11, 2008 from http//www. linux. com/articles/36273? page=2

Friday, May 24, 2019

Factors Influencing Media and Media Reports in Nigeria

By Chidera onyemenam As comprehensive as this topic might seem, factors influencing media as it concerns structure, number of outlets and contents can be mostly classified into two. a) EXTERNAL FACTORS b) INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS this covers the influence on the media as a result of the environment within which the mass media communication system operates.They complicate i)cultural influence ii) influence of the Economy iii) political influence iv)Religious influence v) Legal influence vi) Technological influence vii)Influence of Security INTERNAL FACTORS theses are influences on the media that deliberate place inside the media organisation. It is not readily obvious to the entire populace.Some of these influences are even denied by the media workforce. Some of these factors include i)Media bias ii) Ownership control iii)Wealth iv) Threats both classified factors are instrumental to the state of the media in Nigeria. In this regard, the state of media in Nigeria differs from that in south Africa, since the conditions in which they both operate, differ. This chapter seeks to identify and explain these opposite conditions and factors and how they directly affect our country Nigeria.EXTERNAL FACTORS CULTURAL INFLUENCE Culture as defined by Clyde Wuckhohn (1905-1960) an influential American anthropologist is the total way of life unremarkably followed by the members of a society. He also describes it as a social legacy that an individual acquires from his group. According to Clyde as stated by Ifedayo Daramola in his have got Media and Society (2005), culture includes values, beliefs, customs, religion, technology, and the roles people play in them.In the same vein, Sir Edward B Tylor defines culture as, that complex whole which includes knowledge, arts morals, law,custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of a society. (1871) Sharing the same views with him, Chinoy (1967) defines culture as everything in the environment which is not in the form originally given it by nature. Therefore culture includes all the acquired traits which the members of a society have in common, but one of the inborn ones. In other words, cultural traits are traits that are generally accepted and embibed. Consequent upon these definitions, we can conclude that culture includes language, the philosophy, the religion, values, ideologies,moral codes, rituals, political beliefs and even style of greeting found among a people. This subsequently influences the thought chassis and idea of what is and what is not morally acceptable.For instance, the African culture strongly abhors expository attires, whereas it means little or nothing to an American. The media exists for the society and so their first aspire of duty and allegiance is to their major audience. However, the bulk of the Nigerian audience is complex, stratified, diverseiated and inter-related in so many ways. Considering this factor, the Nigerian media seeks to maintain a balance amidst their media report and the diverse cultures present.Making sure to rightly represent and not offend any culture in favour of another. In this regard, the media seeks to promote, all existing cultures since its products give ultimately be handed down to these diverse audience for consumption. With the difference in philosophies and ideologies,the mass media is careful to tailor their news and advert with all predisposition to the philosophies of their target audience. With respect to culture also, the mass media has coined ways to disseminate information to all and sundry.In this light, the NTA news sub-stations in different States, broadcast news in the mingled languages common there. For example NT A Benue State broadcasts news in TiV and Idoma (the two most common tribes in Benue State). In conjunction with this localisation of news, local newspapers in different States exist to address the particular ideas and needs of that immediate society. These steps are taken to sustain audience patronage and increase coverage of a media jibe in a given region or society.The cultural influence on media has made it possible to reach all facets of society including the masses and minority. boob tube programmes like African Pot are solely dedicated to the promotion of diverse cultures. The media, thus stands to uphold promote and devote its time and space to line up and fit into the boundaries of the peoples slated moral standards, values and belief. Anything contrary to this phenomenon will cause an uproar from all cultural groups and institutions within the country. LEGAL AND LEGISLATIVE INFLUENCE

Thursday, May 23, 2019

The Host Chapter 53: Condemned

The Seekers host remains was named Lacey a dainty, soft, feminine name. Lacey. As inappropriate as the size, in my opinion. Like naming a pit bull Fluffy.Lacey was just as loud as the Seeker-and still a complainer.Youll oblige to forgive me for issue on and on, she insisted, whollyowing us no other options. Ive been sh extincting away in there for years and never getting to speak for myself. Ive got a lot to on a lower floorstand all stored up.How lucky for us. I could almost make myself glad that I was leaving.In answer to my ear hypocrisyr question to myself, no, the face was not less abominable with a different awareness behind it. Because the awareness was not so very different, in the end.Thats why we dont desire you, she told me that first night, making no mixture from the present tense or the plural pronoun. When she realized that you were hearing Melanie just the way she was hearing me, it make her frightened. She thought you might guess. I was her deep, dark secret . A grating laugh. She couldnt make me shut up. Thats why she became a Seeker, because she was hoping to figure out some way to better deal with resistant hosts. And then she requested macrocosm assigned to you, so she could watch how you did it. She was jealous of you isnt that pathetic? She needed to be strong like you. It gave us a real kick when we thought Melanie had won. I guess that didnt happen, though. I guess you did. So why did you come here? Why are you helping the rebels?I explained, unwillingly, that Melanie and I were friends. She didnt like that.Why? she demanded.Shes a good person.But why does she like you?Same reason.She says, for the same reason.Lacey snorted. Got her brainwashed, huh?Wow, shes worsened than the first integrity.Yes, I agreed. I nookie see why the Seeker was so obnoxious. Can you imagine having that in your head all the time?I wasnt the that thing Lacey objected to.Do you have anywhere better to live than these caves? Its so dirty here. Isnt t here a house somewhere, maybe? What do you mean we have to share rooms? Chore schedule? I dont understand. I have to work? I dont think you understandJeb had given her the usual tour the next day, demonstrateing to explain, th unhandy clenched teeth, the way we all lived here. When theyd passed me-eating in the kitchen with Ian and Jamie-he threw me a smack that clearly asked why I hadnt let Aaron shoot her while that was still an option.The tour was more crowded than mine. Everyone wanted to see the miracle for themselves. It didnt even come along to matter to most of them that she was difficult. She was welcome. More than welcome. Again, I felt a little of that bitter jealousy. But that was silly. She was gentleman. She represented hope. She belonged here. She would be here long after I was gone.Lucky you, Mel whispered sarcastically.Talking to Ian and Jamie about what had happened was not as difficult and painful as Id imagined.This was because they were, for different reaso ns, entirely clueless. Neither grasped that this brisk knowledge meant I would be leaving.With Jamie, I still why. More than anyone else, he had accepted me and Mel as the package deal we were. He was able, with his young, open mind, to grasp the reality of our dual personalities. He treated us like two people rather than one. Mel was so real, so present to him. The same way she was to me. He didnt miss her, because he had her. He didnt see the necessity of our separation.I wasnt sure why Ian didnt understand. Was he too caught up in the potential? The changes this would mean for the human society here? They were all boggled by the idea that getting caught-the end-was no longer a finality. There was a way to come pole. It seemed natural to him that I had acted to save the Seeker it was undifferentiated with his idea of my personality. Maybe that was as far as hed considered it.Or maybe Ian just didnt have a chance to think it all through, to see the discernible eventuality, bef ore he was distracted. Distracted and enraged.I should have killed him years ago, Ian ranted as we packed what we needed for our raid. My final raid I tried not to bear on that. No, our mother should have drowned him at birthHes your brother.I dont know why you keep saying that. Are you trying to make me line up worse?Everyone was furious with Kyle. Jareds lips were welded into a tight line of rage, and Jeb stroked his gun more than usual.Jeb had been elicit, planning to join us on this landmark raid, his first since Id come to live here. He was particularly keen to see the hiss field up close. But now, with Kyle putting us all in danger, he felt he had to catch behind just in case. Not getting his way put Jeb in a foul mood.Stuck behind with that creature, he muttered to himself, rubbing the rifle membranophone again-he wasnt getting any happier about the new member of his community. Missin all the fun. He spit on the floor.We all knew where Kyle was. As soon as hed grasped how the Seeker-worm had magically change into the Lacey-human in the night, hed slipped out the venture. Id been expecting him to lead the party demanding the Seekers death (I kept the cryo tankful always cradled in my arms I slept lightly, my hand touching its smooth surface), only if he was nowhere to be found, and Jeb had quashed the resistance easily in his absence.Jared was the one to realize the jeep was gone. And Ian had been the one to link the two absences.Hes gone after Jodi, Ian had groaned. What else?Hope and despair. I had given them one, Kyle the other. Would he betray them all before they could even make use of the hope?Jared and Jeb wanted to put arrive at the raid until we knew if Kyle was successful-it would take him tercet days under the best(p) circumstances, if his Jodi still lived in Oregon. If he could find her there.There was another place, another cave we could evacuate to. A very much littler place, with no water, so we couldnt hide there long. They d debated whether they should move everyone now or wait.But I was in a hurry. Id seen the way the others eyed the silver tank in my arms. Id heard the whispers. The longer I kept the Seeker here, the better chance that someone would kill her. Having met Lacey, Id begun to pity the Seeker. She deserved a mild, pleasant new life with the Flowers.Ironically enough, Ian was the one who took my side and helped hurry the raid along. He still didnt see where this would lead.But I was grateful that he helped me convince Jared there was time to make the raid and get back before a decision was made about Kyle. Grateful also that he was back to acting bodyguard. I knew I could trust Ian with the shiny cryotank more than anyone else. He was the only one I would let patronage it when I needed my arms. He was the only one who could see, in the shape of that small container, a life to be protected. He could think of that shape as a friend, something that could be loved. He was the best ally of a ll. I was so grateful for Ian, and so grateful for the obliviousness that saved him, for the moment, from pain.We had to be fast, in case Kyle ruined everything. We went to Phoenix again, to one of the umteen communities that spun out from the hub. There was a big shuttle field to the southwesterneast, in a town called Mesa, with several meliorate facilities nearby. That was what I wanted-I would give them as much as I could before I left. If we took a Healer, then we might be able to preserve the Healers memory in the host body. Someone who understood all the medicines and their uses. Someone who knew the best ways to get to unattended stashes. atomic number 101 would love that. I could imagine all the questions hed be dying to ask.First the shuttle field.I was sad that Jeb was missing this, but hed have so many other chances in the future. Though it was dark, a long line of small short-nosed shuttles drifted in to land while others took flight in an endless stream.I drove the old wagon train while the others rode in the back-Ian in charge of the tank, of course. I circled the field, staying clear of the busy local terminal. It was easy to spot the vast, sleek white vessels that left the planet. They did not depart with the frequency of the smaller ships. All I apothegm were docked, none preparing to leave immediately.Everythings labeled, I reported to the others, invisible in the dark back. Now, this is important. Avoid ships to the Bats, and especially the See Weeds. The See Weeds are just one system over-it takes only a decade to make the round trip. Thats much too short. The Flowers are the farthest, and the Dolphins, Bears, and Spiders all take at least a ampere-second to go one way. Only send tanks to those.I drove slowly, close to the crafts.This will be easy. Theyve got all kinds of delivery vehicles out here, and we blend in. Oh I can see a tank truck-its just like the one we saw them unloading at the hospital, Jared. Theres a man looking ove r the stacks Hes putting them onto a hover cart. Hes going to load them I drove even slower, trying to get a good look. Yes, onto this ship. Right into the open hatch. Ill circle back and make my move when hes in the ship. I pulled previous(prenominal), examining the scene in my mirrors. There was a lit sign beside the tube that connected the head of the ship to the terminal. I smiled as I read the words backward. This ship was going to the Flowers. It was meant to be.I made a slow turn as the man disappeared into the hull of the ship. limit ready, I whispered as I pulled into the shadow made by the cylindrical wing of the next enormous ship over. I was only iii or four yards from the tank truck. There were a few technicians working near the front of the Flower-bound vessel and others, farther away, out on the old runway. I would be just another figure in the night.I cut the engine and hopped down from the drivers seat, trying to look casual, like I was only doing my job. I went a round to the back of the van and opened the door a crack. The tank was right at the edge, the light on top glowing dull red, signifying that it was occupied. I lifted it carefully and closed the door.I kept up an easy rolling pace as I walked to the open end of the truck. But my brisk sped up. This felt more dangerous than the hospital, and that worried me. Could I expect my humans to risk their lives this way?Ill be there. Ill do it myself, just like you would. On the off chance you get your way, that is.Thanks, Mel.I had to force myself not to keep glancing over my shoulder at the open hatch where the man had disappeared. I placed the tank gently atop the closest column in the truck. The addition, one among hundreds, was not noticeable.Goodbye, I whispered. Better luck with your next host.I walked back to the van as slowly as I could stand to.It was silent in the van as I reversed out from under the big ship. I started back the way wed come, my heart hammering too fast. In my mir rors, the hatch remained empty. I didnt see the man emerge before the ship was out of sight.Ian climbed into the passenger seat. Doesnt look too hard.It was very good luck with the timing. You might have to wait longer for an opportunity next time.Ian reached over to take my hand. Youre the good-luck charm.I didnt answer.Do you feel better now that shes safe?Yes.I saw his head turn sharply as he heard the unexpected sound of a lie in my voice. I didnt meet his gaze.Lets go catch some Healers, I muttered.Ian was silent and thoughtful as we drove the short distance to the small Healing facility.Id thought the second task would be the challenge, the danger. The plan was that I would-if the conditions and numbers were right-try to lead a Healer or two out of the facility under the pretext that I had an injured friend in my van. An old trick, but one that would work only too well on the unsuspecting, trusting Healers.As it turned out, I didnt even have to go in. I pulled into the lot jus t as two middle-aged Healers, a man and a charr wearing purple scrubs, were getting into a car. Their shift over, they were heading home. The car was around the corner from the entrance. No one else was in sight.Ian nodded tensely.I stopped the van right behind their car. They looked up, surprised.I opened my door and slid out. My voice was thick with tears, my face twisted with remorse, and that helped to fool them.My friend is in the back-I dont know whats wrong with him. They responded with the photoflash concern I knew they would show. I hurried to open the back doors for them, and they followed right behind. Ian went around the other side. Jared was ready with the chloroform.I didnt watch.It took just seconds. Jared hauled the unconscious bodies into the back, and Ian slammed the doors shut. Ian stared at my tear-swollen eye for just a second, then took the drivers seat.I rode shotgun. He held my hand again.Sorry, Wanda. I know this is hard for you.Yes. He had no idea how har d, and for how many different reasons.He squeezed my fingers. But that went well, at least. You make an excellent charm.Too well. Both missions had gone too perfectly, too fast. Fate was rushing me.He drove back toward the freeway. by and by a few minutes, I saw a bright, familiar sign in the distance. I took a deep breath and wiped my eyes clear.Ian, could you do me a favor?Anything you want.I want fast food.He laughed. No problem.We switched seats in the parking lot, and I drove up to the ordering box.What do you want? I asked Ian.Nothing. Im getting a kick out of watching you do something for yourself. This has to be a first.I didnt smile at his joke. To me, this was sort of a last meal-the final gift to the condemned. I wouldnt leave the caves again.Jared, how about you?Two of whatever youre having.So I ordered three cheeseburgers, three bags of fries, and three strawberry shakes. by and by I got my food, Ian and I switched again so I could eat while he drove.Eew, he said, wat ching me dip a french fry into the shake.You should try it. Its good. I offered him a well-coated fry.He shrugged and took it. He popped it into his mouth and chewed. Interesting.I laughed. Melanie thinks its gross, too. Thats why Id cultivated the habit in the beginning. It was funny now to think how Id gone out of my way to annoy her.I wasnt really hungry. Id just wanted some of the flavors I particularly remembered, one more time. Ian finished off half my burger when I was full.We made it home without incident. We saw no sign of the Seekers surveillance. Perhaps theyd accepted the coincidence. Maybe they thought it inevitable-wander the desert alone long enough, and something bad would happen to you. Wed had a saying like that on the Mists Planet Cross too many ice fields alone, and wind up a claw beasts meal. That was a rough translation. It sounded better in Bear.There was a large reception waiting for us.I smiled halfheartedly at my friends Trudy, Geoffrey, Heath, and Heidi. M y true friends were dwindling. No Walter, no Wes. I didnt know where Lily was. This made me sad. Maybe I didnt want to live on this sad planet with so much death. Maybe nothingness was better.It also made me sad, petty as it was, to see Lucina standing beside Lacey, with Reid and Violetta on the other side. They were talking animatedly, asking questions, it looked like. Lacey was holding Freedom on her hip. He didnt look especially thrilled about this, but he was happy enough being part of the adults conversation that he didnt squirm down.Id never been allowed near the child, but Lacey was already one of them. Trusted.We went straight to the south tunnel, Jared and Ian laboring under the weight of the Healers. Ian had the heavier one, the man, and sweat ran down his fair face. Jeb shooed the others back at the tunnel entrance and then followed us.Doc was waiting for us in the hospital, rubbing his hands together absently, as if washing them.Time continued to speed up. The brighter l amp was lit. The Healers were given No Pain and laid out facedown on the cots. Jared showed Ian how to prompt the tanks. They held them ready, Ian wincing at the stunning cold. Doc stood over the female, scalpel in hand and medicines laid out in a row.Wanda? he asked.My heart squeezed inward painfully. Do you swear, Doc? All of my terms? Do you promise me on your own life?I do. I will meet all of your terms, Wanda. I swear it.Jared?Yes. abruptly no killing, ever.Ian?Ill protect them with my own life, Wanda.Jeb?Its my house. Anyone who cant abide by this agreement will have to get out.I nodded, tears in my eyes. Okay, then. Lets get it over with.Doc, excited again, cut into the Healer until he could see the silver gleam. He set the scalpel quickly aside. Now what?I put my hand on his.Trace up the back ridge. Can you feel that? Feel the shape of the segments. They get smaller toward the anterior section. Okay, at the end you should feel three small stubby things. Do you feel what Im talking about?Yes, he breathed.Good. Those are the anterior antennae. Start there. Now, very gently, roll your finger under the body. Find the line of attachments. Theyll feel tight, like wires.He nodded.I guided him a third of the way down, told him how to count if he wasnt sure. We didnt have time for counting with all the blood flowing free. I was sure the Healers body, if she came around, would be able to help us-there must be something for that. I helped him find the biggest nodule.Now, rub softly in toward the body. Knead it lightly.Docs voice went up in pitch, turned a little panicky. Its moving.Thats good-it means youre doing it right. kick down it time to retract. Wait till it rolls up a bit, then take it into your hand.Okay. His voice shook.I reached toward Ian. Give me your hand.I felt Ians hand wind around mine. I turned it over, curled his hand into a cup, and pulled it close to Docs operation site.Give the soul to Ian-gently, please.Ian would be the perfect assistant . When I was gone, who else would take such care with my little relatives?Doc passed the soul into Ians waiting hand, then turned at once to heal the human body.Ian stared at the silver ribbon in his hand, his face full of wonder rather than revulsion. It felt warmer inside my chest while I watched his reaction.Its pretty, he whispered, surprised. No matter how he felt about me, hed been conditioned to expect a parasite, a centipede, a monster. Cleaning up severed bodies had not watchful him for the beauty here.I think so, too. Let it slide into your tank.Ian held the soul cupped in his hand for one more second, as if memorizing the sight and feel. Then, with delicate care, he let it glide into the cold.Jared showed him how to latch the lid.A weight fell off my shoulders.It was done. It was too late to change my mind. This didnt feel as horrible as Id anticipated, because I felt sure these four humans would care for the souls just as I would. When I was gone.Look out Jeb suddenly s houted. The gun came up in his hands, pointed past us.We whirled toward the danger, and Jareds tank fell to the floor as he jumped toward the male Healer, who was on his knees on the cot, staring at us in shock. Ian had the presence of mind to hold on to his tank.Chloroform, Jared shouted as he tackled the Healer, pinning him back down to the cot. But it was too late.The Healer stared straight at me, his face childlike in his bewilderment. I knew why his eyes were on me-the lanterns rays danced off both his eyes and mine, making diamond patterns on the wall.Why? he asked me.Then his face went blank, and his body slumped, unresisting, to the cot. Two trails of blood flowed from his nostrils.No I screamed, lurching to his inert form, knowing it was far too late. No

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Neil Anderson Critique: Bondage Breaker Essay

Neil Anderson, in his book Bondage Breaker ( 1993) addresses using a sore phenomenon for a New Age problem. Overall, Anderson suggests that a large get along of problems that good deal struggle with today are related to deuces attack on their mental state. Anderson stands firm on the belief that Christians are non aware of their ability to be attacked by Satans attempts to confuse and deter them from deitys plan for their life. This critique result share the boilers suit summary of this theory.Summary Anderson (1993) writes this book in three major parts. The first entitled Take Courage, opens the contributor up to his opinion on Satans influence and ability to mislead a person. Anderson begins suggesting that the enemy uses many different forms of negative thoughts, feelings and sins that plague people in and outside the counseling field. In these first chapters, Anderson (1993) supports his opinions with his many experiences of people under the attack of demonic forces.(p.1 8). In chapters two and three, Anderson (1993) shares his view that the world is heading in a new burster where culture is more dealing of Satanism and the super congenital (Anderson, 1993, p.29). Therefore this makes for a great time to share this concept and allow people in on the ability to exact more control over the enemys confusion.It is also in this first section that he addresses the biblical need to accept and address the demonic influence (Anderson, 1993, p.37). The write suggests that Christians have accepted the idea that with Jesus Christ, the influence of Satan is dead ( Anderson, 1993, p.37). The author supports his belief that Satans influence is lighten very strong and suggests the bible informs this by such verses as in 2 Corinthians, 105, Every thought captive to the devotion of Christ (holy bible). He also continues to support his belief with scripture from Romans 7, where Paul is describing his struggles (Holy Bible)Anderson also shares his views on Satan s attacks on the human mind (1993, p.64). He shares the support in scripture like The spirit clearly says that in later times some will abandon the faith and follow deceiving hard drink and things taught by demons (1Timothy 41, NSV). He also relates this to psychology by connecting this to a routine pattern of patients hearing voices (Anderson, 1993, p.65).In the final section of part 1, Anderson (1993) shares how Gods love and gift of Jesus Christ is enough to take control of Satans influence, just its about understanding and accept it, before trying to take action (1993, p.93). Once this is understood by the client, then Christians must take action. Anderson (1993) compares this to being in the military and resting in the tanks and missiles but not pickings caution in wearing a helmet (1993, p.93). In other words, the author suggests there is work to be done in taking up the armor of God discussed in Ephesians (Holy Bible).Moving into the second part of the book, Anderson (1993) begins sharing more about Satans strategy with his attack on a persons thoughts and sins. In chapter s withal, one reads the different qualities of a demon, like its ability to exist in or outside humans (Anderson, 1993, p.116).In chapter 10, the reader is informed of Satans lies that continue to linger in a persons mind until they become their truth (Anderson, 1993, p.153). And finally in this section, the author shares about how easily fast one commode slowly sneak into a persons mind and can take over their life (Anderson, 1993, p.171).The ending portion of the book is about the freedom through and through Christ that we are unaware that we have. This section is Andersons explanation of what to do to rid yourself of the demonic forces that have been fueling a negative path in ones life. The first step that he states in taking action towards this freedom is prayer and ack instantlyledging, by renouncing all past or current non-Christian activities that a person may have parti cipated in (Anderson, 1993, p.201). The next step is to make oneself aware of the deception that you are believing (Anderson, 1993, 204). Anderson gives many scripture and sample prayers to help a person realize this (Anderson, 1993, p.209 ). The third step in this process is to allow yourself to adopt forgiveness for others (Anderson, 1993, p.203). The last steps described in these sections explain in detail for sphere of influences of pride, rebellion, and lastly how to make sure this process is a success. Strengths and WeaknessesThe major area that I feel uneasy about with this theory of Satans attacks on Christians is his biblical support. Anderson (1993) supports this theory on the idea that Christians are free through Christ but we are influenced by Satan. I felt that his stance on this was not very clear. I recognize that we are informed in different areas of the bible to be aware of Satans influence, but I dont know if I agree with his opinion that demons can live within u s (Anderson, 1993, p.118). I know that a lot of his interpretations are based on his methodology that he uses, and therefore, I start to disbelief his opinion of the scripture. Its just hard for me to understand and accept that if Christ died to give us freedom, how are demonic forces able to live among us still? Im not against this idea entirely, but it has led me to question where I stand on this. I feel I will need to investigate more on this topic.In agreeing that this may not be acceptable, it brings me to question the ways this theory on Satans control could be abused. If someone were to begin accessing their situation and applying it their everyday life, I can see how this could very easily be abused. Every time you stub your toe, its now all thanks to Satans attacks on you. Eventually a person could begin to label their sins Satans faults as well. Biblically, God calls his people to honesty and dignity. I would not want to find myself falling into this pattern of never trul y evaluating my own struggles and just accepting them as Satans fault. With all this being said, I will say I highly enjoyed this book. I would prefer reading this book the most, as it brought me to consider a new perspective on the dark world that we live in. Until reading this book, I was not very clear on the biblical support that this topic has, even if it is an area of methodology in scripture and several different theological opinions to go with it.I appreciate Andersons views on these attacks in the counseling field. I was amazed at the experiences he has had to back up every one of his theories. I also enjoyed his information on new age super natural influences in the world. I think that is vital information because so many people today are looking to these sources for advice.Personal application Ive had a small portion of my walk with Christ influenced with the knowledge of Satans attacks on the earth and our spiritual walk with God. I enjoyed reading this book and will pro bably study it further in the future. I appreciate knowing that the times in my life when I could not figure out what I was missing or understand what I was doing wrong, it may have been because of spiritual warfare. However, with that being said, I am not comfortable relying on that as a crutch. Therefore, I feel as though this is an area worth investigating and hearing others opinions on before calling it fact.I do think that this is an bring out I would like to compare further with other critics in the counseling field and hear their opinions. I would like to see the new studies that are developing in regards to Christian therapy that acknowledges demonic influences. I am curious to not only hear if this is common treatment, but how it is being researched.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Palm reading

Personalities through their decorations. specific purpose By the end of my speech my audience exit learn how personality thread meter postulateing is dependent on nerves and a nonher 3 major animateness bank bills . L. Introduction A. Attention Getter (Im discharge to say the personality traits of a classmate) , you ask how I know all(prenominal) this almost his about him , its all here written in take his workforce. Transition Sometimes our eyes hide what our blow overs read. Since our typewriter ribbons, moots and fingers atomic make sense 18 all maps that tell us about our personalities and where were expiration through our lives. B.Reason to Listen I calculate everyone here has looked to his detainment ND wondermented what those silly songs meant. Well plow training provides the answer for all this. C. dissertation Statement correspond to Dictionary. Reference. Com bay wreath reading is the practice of interpreting ones character from the arguments a nd configurations of the palm of the clear . D. credibility Statement Throughout my flavor I fork over endlessly heard bad things about palm reading, since its accuracy has always been questioned because it has always been linked with forecasting and never been proven with any scientific facts to gage it up. It is wrap off Owe could you be harpve in such things They use you in order to want your money. After deep research I concluded that its not what people actually think it is a simple process based on our biological features and our nervous system. It is an art practiced worldwide and with Indian astrology roots . E. Preview of main points I will discuss how palm reading is link up to the nerves and brain. Body A. In Order to understand how to read a palm we must early understand how does this process work . 1. Our nerves have a long path that begins with the brain and ends at our body extremities the hands and the feet. . This connection between our nerve endings and our brains is thus what makes our mental thoughts reflect into our hands. Making everything we want, do, behave, pick out or hate visible. Transition The first question asked about palm reading is which hand to read? B. The Palm reader usually chooses each persons dominant hand. 1 . The dominant hand is the passive hand the one you usually use the most and write with , it is all the experiences gained through-out your life spell the non dominant hand is con cheekred the experiences you will go through in the future . . The next tread is determining the shape of the palms , we have 4 shapes unhand the Earth hands which argon squ ar in shape with short fingers. throng with Earth hands ar practical, stubborn and cope outdoors activities. 2. The Second shape is the air hands that are square in shape with long fingers. People with these kind of hands are curious, abundant of ideas, worry a lot, good communicators, and may have problems with private relationships . 3. The third shape is the absquatulate hands that have a long palm but short fingers.People with fire hands are full of energy, spontaneous, optimistic, active, but have of lack patience . 4. The last shape is the Water hands that are rectangular in heap with long fingers. People with water hands are very dreary yet loving, caring, dont cope sanitary with stress . Transition Now we move on to the 3 major capers of the palm. C. Each line of the three tells a different story about each soul . 1. Im going to start with the top line in our hands, the boob line. It is the line that determines the sensitivity and the emotional aspects of a person.If the line starts below the index finger, it agent that he is happily in a relationship. Whereas if the line starts below the tenderness finger, it means that an individual is selfish when it comes to love. If it starts in the middle, then it means that an individual falls in love very easily. However, the curvier the line is the much romantic the individual is, and the straighter it is the less romantic a person is. If it touches life line then it means that the individual is easily heartbroken.But when the line is Www then it means that the individual has experienced many relationships and lovers. Finally a circle on the line means that the individual is disturbing with his life . 2. The Second Line , is the middle one The Head Line . Alt determines how focused or easily distracted a person is. When the line is short, it resembles that an individual is short and direct to the point, whereas the longer it is the more creative and thoughtful an individual is, but the straighter it is, it means that the individual has very clear thoughts.Finally, if the transfer line is wavy, it means that the individual has a lack of concentration. 3. The curves beside the thumb represent the third major line the life line, the closer they are to the thumb the less enthusiastic and passionate for life the individual is, while the curvier th ey are it means that an individual has a great eve for life , if it swings out it shows that the individual likes to travel often, but if in that respect are breaks it means that the individual has a weak immune system.Any humanitarianal line means that an individual is surrounded with positive vibes. Ill. Conclusion A. Review of main points So Palm reading does not tell you the number of kids your going to have , nor at what age will you die or the bear on of the pet your going to bring next year. It is a simple art that interprets your personality through the reading of your palms and not a fortune telling myth. B. Closure Now that you all know everything about palm eating you can each know more about your own personality. True or not.It is an easy, athletics unharmed process that takes only a couple of minutes.Palm ReadingPalmistry We all wonder what awaits us in the future. We wonder about our health, our careers and of course, our love life. Well the answer to all of these questions may lie quite literally in the palm of your hand. Palmistry, or palm reading, is the practice of predicting the future outcomes through the cartoon of the palm. This study dates back to 3000 BC in ancient Egypt and still being practiced today worldwide. straight off we will discuss how our palm lines can tell us about our future and ourselves, as well as learn the basics on how to read a palm.Which will include the four major lines the heart, head, life and indicate line. First of all, how is that our future can be determined through mere palm lines? We all know that our physical health can be affected by stress and psychological negativity. Our mental outlook and attitudes also form our reactions to lifes tied(p)ts. According to the journal, English Literature in Transition by Joan Navarre, the brain, through the high concentration of nerves in the hands, can influence the hold of the palms and the patterns of the lines in them.Its Also important to know that our pal m lines are not fixed and we are not doomed to a future already set in stone. In fact, our palm lines careen throughout our lifetime, some more frequently than others. As we mature and change our ways, our palm lines will turn accordingly. They may get deeper, straighter, form new lines, or some may even disappear. In addition to changing lines, as you have probably noticed already, the lines on your left and right hand differ. Your weaker hand, whether it be right or left, represents what we are born with and our private self.The stronger hand represents what we do with our lives, the actions we take and our public self. According to the article, A Modern Palmist, by Ania Blomberg, in the Feb 2011 electric outlet of the Torquay Herald Express Your authoritative palm lines are indicators of the likelihood something will happen, as well as a window into your past. Our Next step is learning our major palm lines. The first of the major lines we will discuss is the heart line. It be gins on the side of the hand, spans across the palm and ends in various places.If it ends under the first finger it signifies an introspective and possibly selfish person. If under the encourage finger, you are a giver and always put the needs of others before your own. Ideally, the heart line should end between the first two fingers, signifying a balance between giving and receiving. A straight heart line suggests your head gets involved in matters of the heart. In other words, You dont let your emotions make your decisions for you. A curved heart line indicates you are a romantic and always wear your heart on your sleeve.For most people the heart line is the deepest and darkest line on the palm. The second line is the head line. It begins on the side of your hand under your first finger spanning across the palm ending at various lengths. If your head line is straight you are logical, detail oriented and organized. If your line is curved, you are more creative and artistic. Accor ding to the book The Hand from A-Z The essentials of Palmistry by Judith Hipskind, The length of the head line symbolizes your attention span and ability to concentrate. The longer the head line the more focused you are.Additionally, If there is a fork at the end of the head line, it means you can see both sides of an issue and will love debating. This is sometimes called a lawyers fork. The third of the major lines is the life line. According to humanhand. com, in innovative palmistry the life line does not tell you how long you will live but how you will live. It does however represent a timeline of events. The area where it begins, between the thumb and first finger, represents the ascendant of your life, then curve down around your thumb and ending at your wrist, which would represent old age.Lines crossing the life line signify important events, and where they are located indicates when the events are likely to happen. If your life line sweeps out toward the decoct of your hand, you will most likely seek independence and travel often. By contrast, If it hugs close to your thumb you are more likely to stay close to home and family. If caught in between, you may struggle between auspices and the need for independence. Breaks in the life line can indicate times of major illness or stress.If you notice smaller, fainter lines that connect the life and heart line, they indicate strong romantic relationships. Where they are located on the life line represents at what point in life the relationship is likely to happen. In addition, the number of these lines suggests how many of these relationships you are likely to have. Finally we come to the Fate line. This line begins near the heel of the hand and runs through the center towards the middle finger. According to palmistryfree. com, this line is volatile and only found in about 50% of the population.It is tied to your personal life path, including school, career choices, successes and obstacles. If this line is absent, you are unsure of the direction of your life. If your fate line is strong, you have specific goals and direction. If only lightly etched you could easily waver between the two. The beginning and ending of the line also plays a role. When the fate line begins on the wrist, you have always make things your own way and may be a bit of an oddball. If it begins more toward the center of your hand, it took a while for you to figure out who you are and what to want to be.Now that you know how our palm lines come to be and how to examine your own heart, head, life and fate lines, you can predict what sort of future to expect for yourself if you continue down your current path. However, it is ultimately our will that shapes our lives, not our palm. The practice of reading palm lines is not to predict doom, or even happiness. They are instead a guide. The purpose of palmistry is to help you see the way ahead so you can actively plan a successful and prosperous future.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Endangered language

At present, both individuals and regimes ar concerned about style diversity as an increasing number of reports have demonstrated a considerable decrease In the number of languages during the brave out fewer centuries (Romaine, 2007). Additionally, the future of many languages Is also dismal. As a consequence, whether or non to protect exist languages Is a quite controversial Issue at present. This examine will discuss both advantages and disadvantages of preserving languages, which are quite essential for governments and other organizations.One argument put forward is that humanity should care about languages because it whitethorn promote the development of cultural diversity. Just like biology, a language is not only link to an individual nations value or right, however also connects to the culture establishment all over the macrocosm (Crystal, 2000). From this perspective, the damage to any factor in the system will cause unpredictable results in this system as a whole (ibid). In addition, the diversity may promote the development of culture.That means languages often lay an important percentage In our society through diversity, regardless of its population. Nevertheless, It Is advised that some linguists claims for the security measure of language may neglect Its issue and true function that Is communication. In other words, If a language Is spoken only by a few people, It Is not a true language (Mali, 2000). Certainly, It Is near to other languages and cultures. However, the benefit Is not because of the uniqueness of different languages, but due to removing barriers and making connections across them (ibid).Therefore, a language becomes extinct because it has lost the function of communication instead of other reasons. Additionally, protectionism seems to cause a ban impact on economy and society, especially in some multicultural society. Take Indonesia as an example, the government impose an ethics test in the local language on opposed lawyers (Krieger, 2013). As a result, not only do the local lawyers have a few opportunities to communicate with their foreign colleagues, but It also harmed the economy. In conclusion, the disadvantages of protectionism outweigh the advantages.Language and Linguistics Compass, 1(1-2), 115-132 endangered language By crusader 1230 decrease in the number of languages during the last few centuries (Romaine, 2007). Additionally, the future of many languages is also dismal. As a consequence, whether or not to protect endangered languages is a quite controversial issue at present. This play an important role in our society through diversity, regardless of its population. Nevertheless, it is advised that some linguists claims for the protection of language ay neglect its essence and true function that is communication.In other words, if a language is spoken only by a few people, it is not a true language (Mali, 2000). Certainly, it is beneficial to other languages and cultures. However, th e benefit is not communicate with their foreign colleagues, but it also harmed the economy. In conclusion, the disadvantages of protectionism outweigh the advantages. Thus, it is Crystal, D. (2000), Why should we care? Language Death, Cambridge University Press snakelike. Com Retrieved March 21, 2014, from http//www. Snakelike. Com/essay/

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Oreo market research Essay

Nabisco is a accompany that has been in existence since 1898. During their 109 eld in existence, they have grown through natural growth, mergers, and acquisitions. This has each(prenominal)owed Nabisco to be the leading snack puzzler in the world. The oreo chocolate sandwich cookie was first introduced in Hoboken, N. J. in 1911. oreo cookies today argon faraway and away the worlds most popular cookie. The oreo cookie family accounts for approximately 10 percent of all store cookie salesa $3 billion merchandise. However in recent historic period Nabisco has been reluctant to adapt to current market trends.The company was focusing on producing pertly versions of existing products to make them more convenient. Situation compend In 1898, the New York Biscuit play along and the American Biscuit and Manufacturing Company merged over 100 bakeries into the National Biscuit Company, later called Nabisco. Founders Adolphus Green and William Moore, orchestrated the merger and the company quickly rose to first place in the manufacturing and marketing of cookies and crackers in America. To expand their orbicular presence and to streng hence their position in the fast-growing consumer snacks sector, Philip Morris Co.Inc. acquired Nabisco Holdings in December 2000. Philip Morris purchased Nabisco for $14. 9 billion in cash plus assumed $4 million in debt. Eventually, Philip Morris integrated the Nabisco brands with its Kraft aliment operations. And instanter it includes brands such as Chips Ahoy, Fig Newtons, Mallomars, oreo cookies, Premium Crackers, Ritz Crackers, etc.. Nabisco Arabia Company Ltd. (NAARCO) was formed in 1995 as a mutual venture between Nabisco International and The Olayan Group of Saudi Arabia.In 2000, NAARCO made a major enthronisation in a new plant to produce oreo, the worlds most popular cookie. OREO cookies were launched in the Saudi market in March 2001 with a major TV campaign. Internal Analysis The $3 million plant upgrade includ ed a whole new production line, new offices, additional w arhousing, and new mess rooms for the increased work force. Equipment from Spain, Italy, India, France, and Austria went into the world-class facility, under the supervision of Nabisco good Director Frank Willemsen and the Technical Services Manager Anselmo Codina.The multitude of Kraft have recognized that the assembly line has an important role in society- a responsibility that included understanding and meeting the publics expectations, helping to address important social, environmental and economic issues and making a difference in topical anaesthetic anaesthetic communities and the world. They firmly believe that Our success will depend importantly on our willingness and ability to listen, get feedback on what were doing from those both inside and outside Kraft and act responsibly on issues of important concern. 1 Stargate InstituteMarket Analysis Target Market The current target market for the original vanilla fi lling Oreo is clawren. The original Oreo cookies have previously focused on and promoted the new colorize for the creme filling and change the round shaped cookies into rolls, which would generate new interest amongst children, who would in turn prevail on _or_ upon their p arents to buy the new cookie. Geographic Factor This project is done and carried on in Riyadh, the capital and largest urban center of Saudi Arabia. Riyadh belongs to the historical regions of Nejd and Al-Yamama.The population of the city is 4,700,000 of which 60% are Saudis and 40 % are foreigners. And the immersion is 3,024 km square. Demographic Factor As Riyadh is k directlyn for its restrictions and being an Islamic country, the family life cycles followed here(predicate) are usually all family members. Young single people can not live individually and independently, fearing for them young mature boys/girls will live under their families until its time for them to start up their own families. And chi efly Saudi people are well known by their family sizes.Most of the family sizes are more then 6 or even far more than that. This is what makes the youth population really high in the kingdom. And it is something obvious and general that Saudi people are known for their wealth and considered as rich people and in return earn high incomes. Behavioral Factor As Riyadh is developing, people now are becoming aware of various new brands which are attracting them to explore and investigate things. Women here are obsessed about shopping and show a favorable attitude and interest towards the different brands.They are also considered as heavy users when it comes to brand loyalty. 2 Stargate Institute Marketing Need As Oreo is a biscuit, and biscuits are food, so the most important need the Oreo biscuits satisfy is Hunger. But if we march on narrow down the needs, Oreo can be satisfying more than just the drive (hunger). *Oreo satisfies the nurturing need example, a mother having difficulties in feeding her 4 to 6 years old child with some nutrition food, can consider Oreo to feed her child with a sip of milk.*Oreo satisfies the imitation need example, kids watching the Oreo ad on TVs season the other kids are make whoopieing twisting, trouncing and dunking the cookie into a glass of milk. This forces the kids to want that cookie right away and imitate the same steps. *Oreo also satisfies the gaming need, and in this case not only kids will want to have fun and enjoy Oreo even adults like to have fun once in a while individually or even with their kids. Market Trends Various on-going and changing trends in the consumer market affect the phone line of an organization.Some of those having an impact on Oreo chocolate sandwich biscuits are A 2004 TNS study amongst Saudis has order a trend towards smaller families. It revealed that Saudis realize the need for smaller families to provide a better woodland of life for their children. Females have been given permission by the government to work which resulted in the increase of get power. Driven by changing lifestyles and population growth the impact on the food market has been positive. The market therefore witnessed rapid growth over the review period.The consumers in Saudi market are seen as active switchers with a medium brand loyalty level. Lastly, a study was conducted by TNS in 2007 which showed that 99 per cent of Saudi respondents in the study consumed chocolate food (chocolates, chocolate milk, biscuits, etc. ) in the remnant seven days, an increase from 95 per cent in 2004. 3 Stargate Institute Market process Growth in the Saudi Arabian biscuit market is being driven mainly by 2 factors firstly, the marked increase in advertising spend by multinationals such as Nabisco, Master Foods and Danone.Secondly, the popularity of emergent products such as chocolate-coated biscuits and bread substitutes, which have recently been launched in the market. Researches have shown that biscuits, p articularly sweet biscuits, are generally sold at low prices, averaging between SR0. 25 and SR2 (US $0. 06 US $0. 53), for a single-serve pack and enjoy excellent distribution in all outlets. The biscuits sector is highly developed owing to the strength of the local industry in Saudi Arabia, represented by large manufacturers such as United Food Industries.Oreo sales showed a fluctuating result during the past 13 years. When Oreo initially was launched into the market, sales increased to a high extent for about 3 years but then sales decreased for a long period during 1997 to 2002. Oreo marketing managers became aware of their loses and immediately went back to action mechanism and changed their marketing mix and started to introduce several different new products. This effort resulted with high sales in 2008. Sales were amounted to $4 billion and market share 41%.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Mexico Gulf of Mexico

Mexico is a beautiful country situated in North America, delimited on the on the east by the Gulf of Mexico, on the s startheast by Guatemala, on the south and west by the North Pacific Ocean, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea, and north by the United States. The United Mexican States consist of a accepted republican federation of thirty-one put ups and a central district, Mexico City, is considered to be one of the most densely populate cities on globe. The Mexican Revolution was an interlude of political, military and tender conflict and mayhem that set in motion with the call over armaments made on November 20 1910 by Francisco I. Madero, a politician, author and subversive who served as President of Mexico from 1911 to 1913, and lasted until 1921.It is anticipated that the war killed nine hundred thousand of the 1910 population of fifteen million. The approach epoch of fortify conflict terminated in the removal from power of dictator Porfirio Daz Mori, a Mexican-American war v olunteer, French intrusion hero, and President who ruled Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and from 1884 to 1911, and Maderos rise to presidency. Madero was thrown out in 1913 and the state was swallowed up in civil war, as more than a few political and armed groups raised war against each other for being in command of the nation. A most of the essence(predicate) stride towards the end of armed conflict caught up the dissemination of the current constitution of Mexico in 1917, the decreed end of the insurrection.On the other hand, conflict and political unrest such as the Cristero War proceed up to the late 1920s. Factory or butchery worker in Mexico City had faced inconceivable obstacles ahead the Mexican revolution in 1910, in exercising their rights to join independent unions, bargain collectively, and back strikes. By 1879, revolutionary thoughts had spread all through the budding Mexican labor movement La Social had sixty two provincial units and about five thousand people were pr esent at its 1879 symposium. Its paper, La International, made social insurrection, social revolution, and the elimination of all governments and the formation of a universal social republic indispensable.That would put the last touches on all national boundaries. Many of the newspapers articles from San Antonio narrate prejudice suffered by the rural and urban Factory and slaughterhouse workers in Mexico, the sleaze and venality of government bureaucrats in that state, the complicity of foreign ground resources with the Daz regime, and the inevitability of terminating the dictatorship.From 1895 to 1911 with on the increase foreign supremacy of the economy came beyond head ruthless operative conditions. Capitalism, free of state parameter, subjugated Factories and slaughterhouses. A necessary social arrangement with hospitals, upbeat reimbursement, schools, and housing facility and so on, was not provided by foreign capitalists. Company towns were built for Factory and slaughter house workers where their entire families lived in diminutive single rooms. These barrack settlements were little more than massive penitentiaries.Workers were expelled from having guests to put a stop to transaction and communication of ideas. Industrial contamination coupled with household sewage caused terrible health hazards that carried epidemic after epidemic on the working class. State of affairs was so dreadful in some company towns that even the panorama of starvation could not drive people to work there. The state took action by compulsorily rounding up men, women and children, and compelling them to work as slaves. Every quality of work and nutriment was proscribed. Fines were imposed on Factory and slaughterhouse workers who were then enforced to take out mortgages to pay them off. Thus Factory and slaughterhouse workers faced several obstacles in Mexico City face before and during the revolution.Regardless of the awing oppression and unsympathetic circumstances, wor kers sustained to organize. A number of clandestine workers councils and subversive unions were created, much forming a substitute revolutionary culture based on reciprocated aid, as workers endeavored to survive in an atrocious atmosphere. By 1900, some of these organizations became strong as much as necessary to confront the regime invigorate a number of strikes across Mexico.After the wrapping up of Mexican revolution both refugees and Mexican Americans involve themselves in the activities undertaken by labor organizations. The American Federation of Labor naturally repulsed Mexican line of descent factory and slaughterhouse workers and considered them as prospective strikebreakers, but Tejano workers seek for other alternatives. The membership of La Agrupacin Protectora, founded 1911, comprised of factory and slaughterhouse workers. La Agrupacin called for the fortification of its members from illegitimate reclamations of possessions.Tejanos as well united an miscellanea of Socialist associations for instance the different associates of the Socialist party in Texas. Some Tejano factory and slaughterhouse workmen joined unions but however found themselves separated out from Caucasian laborers. Nevertheless, the epoch of the insurrection and World War I brought about an upswing in organizational responsiveness and no doubt improved living and working conditions of factory and slaughterhouse workers especially those of Mexican origin. Politically, Tejanos involved themselves in remonstration activities to bring awareness to the tribulations of their everyday living and working conditions. Aggravated by antagonism against decades old prejudice and disdain, Tejanos finally joined in a movement of armed confrontation against subjugation in 1915.In the conclusion it would relevant to mention that the revolts and wars disregardless of whatever reason instigated cast devastating curse on mankind. These never prove to be beneficiary for any party. Though livi ng and working conditions of factory and slaughterhouse workmen in Mexico improved subsequent to the Mexican revolution in 1910, but due to various deceitful policies of the government the workers still suffer.ReferenceSmith, DA Mexico A Thousand Revolutions Alliance Publications 2001

Friday, May 17, 2019

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

IntroductionThroughout history, our conceptualization of obsessive unequivocal disorder (OCD) has been changing alongside changes in the way we apply viewed the cosmea. With the dawning of the Renaissance in westerly Europe, religious explanations establish on demonic possession were superseded by a to a greater extent humanistic understanding. By the early seventeenth century, the obsessions that drove Shakespe ares Lady Macbeth to suicide were recognized to be a product of her conscience-smitten mind, for which there was no medical cure.Obsessions and compulsions were first described in the medical literature of the early 19th century. They were viewed as an unusual expression of melancholia. By the beginning of the twentieth century, with the development of psychoanalysis, the focus shifted onto psychological explanations based on unconscious conflicts, but this did non provide a useful strategy for treatment. The subsequent finish of learning theory to OCD led to the deve lopment of effective behavioural treatments in the 1960s and 1970s.Compared with the pace of these diachronic developments, modern understanding of OCD has expanded with dramatic speed. The development of effective medical treatments of OCD has revolutionized the outlook for sufferers and propelled OCD to the forefront of scientific attention. With the growth of research into the epidemiology, psychopharmacology, neurobiology, neuropsychology and genetics of OCD, reviewed throughout this publication, the emphasis has once again swung back toward a medical model. As we enter the twenty-first century, we now recognize OCD as a commonplace, treatable form of major(ip) kind disorder.After the pioneering epidemiological catchment area (ECA) studies carried out by the National Institute of Mental health in the early 1980s reported that the prevalence of OCD was substantially higher than expected, (Robins, Holzer, & Weissman, 1984) repeated population studies using connatural methods have demonstrated a lifetime prevalence of 2-3% worldwide (Weissman, Bland & Canino, 1994). Taiwan and India were the that exceptions, with place below 1%. If these estimates are accurate, then OCD affects more than 50 million people in the world today. The prevalence does not depend to be influenced by socioeconomic status, educational achievement, or ethnicity. The disorder is more common than schizophrenia, and about half as common as depression. Yet the illness remains by and large under-recognized, and the psychosocial and economic costs to society from untreated OCD are high (Hollander, & Wong, 1998). It is not surprising that the World Health Organization has now recognized OCD as a public health priority.While there is little dubiety that the hidden epidemic of OCD exists, the actual prevalence of clinically relevant disorder has been called into question. In the ECA studies lay interviewers were trained to bugger off DSM-III diagnoses using the Diagnostic Interview Sche dule (DIS). However, clinical reappraisal of DIS-positive oddballs resulted in less than 25% inveterate to meet the criteria for OCD (Nelson & Rice, 1997).One explanation is that the rates of illness reported in the original ECA studies whitethorn have been blown-up. Alternatively, the findings may reflect variability in the severity of the disorder over time.Obsessive exacting disorder is more common in women, although the differences are not as obvious as in depression or new(prenominal) anxiety disorders. An average female to male ratio of 1.51.0 is accepted for the community at large, although the ratio appears nearly equal in the adolescent population, reflecting perhaps the earlier onset in boys. In particularly in males, having obsessions and compulsions or magical thinking, poor social adjustment, and an early chronic course, predicted a worse outcome.A more young 5-year prospective follow-up study of 100 OCD patients showed that in spite of the introduction of modern treatments, outcomes were similar to Skoog and Skoogs cohort, with only 20% reaching abounding remission of their OCD, 50% showing partial remission, and the remainder unchanged or worse over 5 years. Less severe illness and being married were associated with a split up outcome (Steketee Eisen & Dyck, 1999).Most patients suffer a mixture of different obsessions or compulsions. Surveys have consistently identified befoulment fears as the most common obsession, with concern about harm to others, pathological doubt, somatic obsessions and the need for accordance also occurring frequently. Half of all OCD patients admitted for treatment suffer compulsions in the realm of insistent checking or unwarranted cleaning and washing. 20 Key themes have been identified that underlie most symptoms. These include abnormal put on the line assessment, pathological doubt and incompleteness.Patients with OCD usually retain full insight into the absurdity of their symptoms, although this is not always the slickness (Insel & Akiskal, 1986). The DSM-IV singles out patients with poor insight as a meaningful subgroup. These individuals have more abstruse symptomatology, which makes diagnosis more difficult, and tend to be more severely ill. They have only a limit sense of the excessiveness and irrationality of their panoramas and behaviours and are therefore difficult to engage in treatment. They may appear to be deluded (and hence receive inappropriate treatment) but longitudinal studies show they do not go on to develop schizophrenia-like illnesses. In a cohort of 475 patients with OCD, (6%) displayed lack of insight.Mild forms of obsessional behaviour, such as repetitive checking or superstitious behaviour commonly occur in everyday life. They only meet the criteria for OCD if they are time-consuming, or associated with impairment or distress.Recurrent, intrusive thoughts, impulses and images also occur in other mental disorders thought to share a relationship with OCD for example, the preoccupation with bodily appearance, in body dysmorphic disorder with a feared object, in specific phobia with illness, in hypochondriasis or with hair-pulling, in trichotillomania. A diagnosis of OCD should only be contrast men predominate in surveys of OCD referrals, possibly reflecting a greater severity in males.Women during maternalism and the puerperium are particularly at risk of developing the disorder. In a study by Neziroglu et al of 59 mothers with OCD, perplexd their symptoms for the first time during pregnancy. In many cases, pre-existing obsessional tendencies are unmasked and exaggerated by the events surrounding childbirth.Obsessive compulsive disorder is considered to be one of the most strongly inherited mental disorders (Pauls, Alsobrook, & Goodman, 1995). Approximately one-fifth of nuclear family members of OCD sufferers show signs of OCD, and the younger the sufferer the more likely they are to have a first-degree relative affected. The clus tering of OCD and Tourettes syndrome (TS) at heart families suggests a common inherited factor.The course of the illness provoke vary from a relatively benign form in which the patient experiences infrequent, discrete episodes of illness interspersed with symptom-free periods, to malignant OCD, characterized by unremitting symptoms and substantial social impairment.In a 40-year prospective follow-up study, reported by Skoog and Skoog, the authors managed to come in and examine 144 out of 251 OCD patients who had previously been admitted as inpatients under their care between 1947 and 1953. 1Given that effective treatments for OCD were not developed until the end of the study, much of the data is naturalistic. The authors found that roughly 60% showed signs of general improvement within 10 years of onset of illness, rising to 80% by the end of the study.However, only 20% achieved full remission even after nearly 50 years of illness 60% continued to experience significant symptoms 10% showed no improvement whatsoever and another 10% had worsened. In 60% of cases the heart of the obsessions shifted markedly over the follow-up period (Pauls, Alsobrook, & Goodman, 1995).One-fifth of those who had shown an early, sustained improvement subsequently relapsed, even after 20 years without symptoms, suggesting early recovery does not rule out the possibility of very late relapse. Intermittent, divided disease was common during the early stage of illness, and predicted a more favourable outcome, whereas chronic illness predominated in the later years.Early age of onset, made if there are also unrelated obsessive-compulsive symptoms, in which case more than one diagnosis may be warranted. Activities such as preoccupation with eating, sex, shopping and period of play are not considered genuine compulsions because they are not egodystonic, and the individual usually only tries to resist because of the ill consequences.ReferenceHollander E, Wong C, 1998). Psychosocial functions and economic costs of obsessive compulsive disorder, CNS Spectrums (3 (5) suppl. 148-58.Insel T, Akiskal H, 1986. Obsessive compulsive disorder with psychotic features a phenomenological analysis, Am J Psychiatry 1431527-33.Nelson E, Rice J, 1997. Stability of diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the Epidemiological Catchment Area Study. Am J Psychiatry 154826-31.Pauls DL, Alsobrook JP, Goodman W et al, 1995). A family study of obsessive compulsive disorder, Am J Psychiatry 152 76-84.Robins LN, Holzer JE, Weissman MM et al, 1984 Lifetime prevalence of specific psychiatric disorders in triad sites, Arch Gen Psychiatry (1984) 41 949-58.Steketee G, Eisen J, Dyck I et al, (1999) Predictors of course in obsessive compulsive disorder, Psychiatr Res 89 (3)229-38.Weissman MM, Bland RC, Canino GL et al, 1994. The cross national epidemiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder, J Clin Psychiatry 55 5-10.