Tuesday, March 12, 2019
19th Century American Literature Essay
The nineteenth century gave readers a plethora of literary genius. Perhaps the most recognized literary movement was transcendental philosophy. This literary innovation was based on a collection of new ideas in religion, culture, and philosophy. transcendental philosophy paved the way for many subgenres, its most significantly mated however was the emergence of Dark Romanticism. The Romantics had a tendency to value sensation and intuition over reason and logic. Many of the writers of the nineteenth century pose themselves into one or the other category. In its most specific use of goods and services transcendentalism refers to a literary and philosophical movement that developed in America in the first half of the nineteenth century. It first arose among the vainglorious New England Congregationalists who departed from the orthodox Calvinists, whose approach to Christian life emphasizes the shape of God over all things. (in text citation) transcendentalism likewise snarly the rejection of the Puritan values that were erst the basis of New England culture.American Transcendentalism began with the formation of the Transcendental Club in 1836, in Boston. Ralph Waldo Emerson lead the group of literary minds including, Marg art Fuller, a feminist and social reformer, and Henry David Thoreau, a natural scientist and author. Together they and their other members published The Dial, a short-lived but powerful periodical. Emerson, the father of Transcendentalism, wrote some of the study works of the movement. Self- Reliance and Nature are two of his well known. In Nature, Emerson conveys to the reader the belief that each individualist must develop a personal understanding with the universe, and that there is a relationship between man and nature. Henry David Thoreau was also a major contributor to the Transcendentalist movement, in two of Thoreaus most influential pieces, Walden, he writes of his strong beliefs of natures impact on man. In shelter to Ci vil Government, Thoreau writes of his issues with organized government That government is outgo which governs least,That government is beaver which not governs at allHis libertarian views of governments involvement in every day life lead to his arrest in 1846 for default option of poll taxes. His refusal to pay was based on his beliefs that one should not subscribe to a government that supported such atrocities as slavery. Walden was an account of Thoreaus time spent living in a hut in Walden Pond near Concord, Massachusetts he explores such values as self reliance, and the simplicity of nature. The Transcendental movement inspired authors like Nathaniel Hawthorne and Edgar Alan Poe and sparked another(prenominal) literary movement known as Dark Romanism. Unlike Transcendentalism the Dark Romantics believed that human nature is not necessarily good, that the darker side of adult male had been being ignored by the transcendentalists. The works of the Dark quixotics is filled wi th tales of revenge, obsession, attaint and madness. The conflicts between good and evil set a gloomy, dark inclination of the tales written by the Dark Romantics. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote the Scarlet Letter, a story of ignominy and hypocrisy, his ancestors Puritan values and his lack of belief in their ways lead to the creation of this piece.His main character, Hester, is labeled an adulterer and is oblige to wear a scarlet A that symbolizationizes her sin of adultery. While those who ingest her see a symbol of shame and guilt, Hester sees it as a symbol of strength and pride, and above all, a symbol of the towns hypocrisy. This romantic piece of literature also has gothic elements. Hawthornes use of imagery and dismal tones lend it to the genre of Dark Romanticism. Other works by Hawthorne, specifically, My Kinsman, Major Molineux, are filled with dark and light imagery, from the main character, redbreasts, meeting of the ferryman to his realization that his kinsman is not the respectable man he once believed he was, this story had dark undertones that go along way in conveying the strange and secretive ways of the townsfolk that Robin meets.Edgar Alan Poe also writes in the Dark Romantic genre, he had a great disfavour for the transcendentalists calling them, Frogpondians, after a pond on Boston Commons, he ridiculed their writings and his piece, Never Bet the Devil in You Head, was a undefended attack on the movement. Poe, who is sometimes considered a gothic writer, uses ideas such as dementia and paranoia in his works. Supernatural behaviors of characters and personification grace the pages of many of hisbest tales. Many of Poes tales are distinguished by the authors unique grotesque inventiveness in addition to his plot construction. such stories as The Pit and the Pendulum is a spine-tingling tale of cruelty and torture, while the differentiate -Tale Heart, is a story a maniacal murderers overbearing guilt and shame, wherefore actual confes sion of his crime. The dark romantic authors embraced the concept of weltschmerz, or homo pain, a phrase coined by German author Jean Paul.