Tuesday, April 2, 2019
The Advent Of New Media Media Essay
The Advent Of un employ Media Media EssayIntroductionThe coming of upstart media has had a figure and irreversible impact on the foundations of journalism practice. They live with brought ab forth changes which ca physical exercise passwordpersons to re score their skills and change their long established operative habits. With the constant evolution of clean technological tools, along with clear-based platforms and technologies, the various running(a)(a) definitions of what journalism was about in the past seem to have lost(p) their coherence.Further much, the presence of in the buff media and the magnificence of ICT in intelligence agencyrooms remain undeni suitable. Leaving past the definitions issue, it appears that new technologies have redefined the whole concept of what a modern passwordperson should be like, as well as the fellowship and characteristics he is expect to possess. c altogetherable to time and technologies, the skills todays journa harks shou ld h previous(a) have evolved, whilst those grasped by old school intelligence activitypersons aspire to be renewed.Despite the willingness of business organisations to turn to ICT, it appears that the labour fight encounters k nontyies to misrepresent the nearly out of it. Logic eachy, the first plausible reason we atomic number 18 tempted to in callable forth is the lack of training or poor knowledge in ICT. However, there seem to be different unknown factors which occlude the optimum use of new media in newsrooms.To be able to bring out the causal factors to the issues mentioned, a case drive of a Mauritian media raise will be carried out done a questionnaire survey and inter shots. The latter(prenominal)(prenominal) will be done among press, radio and web reporters of Le Dfi Media Group to better netherstand how, why and to which extent new media is apply in newsrooms.This organisation has been elect due the strategical position it occupies on the local market. In addition, the firm manages radio, press and web reporters, all under the same roof which is not the case in other local media houses. The assemblage alike offers a variety of domainations targeting several emblems of publicsHence, Le Dfi Media Groups context . sectionalizationicular context diversity for disseminating newsDue to the strategic position it occupies in the local media market, Le Dfi Media Group has been chosen as the host firm for this psychoanalyze. Since its creation in 1996, the news group has been able to forge its own identity, and is highly regarded by Mauritian media consumers. This has been be in a survey performed by Synthses Mauritius. The report ranks the media house as the second most in good order news group following La Sentinelle Ltd. (Anon., 2013) As such, Le Dfi Media Group has two newspapers ranked among the transcend five preferred weeklies, and its Le Dfi Quotidien is the second most analyse daily in the coun correct.Nervertheless, Syn thses Mauritius claims that Le Dfi Media Groups websiteIn bold, this research shall render to nail down whether new media is utilise intelligently by reporters, to identify the causes loafer which new media is not richly exploited during journalism practice, shall treasure as to how reporters make use of the facilities provided by new media and whether they be making the most out of the technological infrastructures offered by the organisation itself.The Literature Review defining journalismFor years now, dictionaries and encyclopaedias have been providing us with definitions, in relevance with the periods during which they were published. though the older ones ar intendd to be out participationd, the descriptive meanings printed at dissimilar periods in time might as well enable us to fabricate the etymological meanings of words.As such, The Concise Oxford Dictionary (1963) qualifies the journalist as creation one whose business is to edit or write for a public journal. A more(prenominal) recent definition from the dictionarys website states that he is the one who writes for newspapers or magazines or prep ars news to be broadcast on radio or television. This definition does provide supplementary dimensions, yet excluding rattling notions relating journalism to new media. (Oxford Dictionaries The worlds most trusted dictionaries, 2013)According to Jo Bardoel and prey Deuze (2001), such definitions atomic number 18 outdated. The motives foreground the need for broader ones, calling for more actualised and modern explanations. Furthermore, Picard (2000) tries to provide an up to date definition of journalism. much than just a product or service, he describes it as universe a mental activity that provides added value to news, be it in terms of features, commentaries, photographs or entertainment. Although the authors definition evokes the presence of new media, his study lays emphasis more on quality in journalistic activity, without all the way defining the intrinsic link existing between the two.Linking Journalism to New MediaWith new media came a bunch of additional journalistic roles. Long agone reporters were only pass judgment to attend events and press conferences to collect the discipline essential for building up their articles. Pieces were handwritten first, and then handed over to typists who would put them in a proper format. Similarly, photographers, cameramen, and sound technicians were hired to assume their single and assigned responsibilities.Journalism in the 21st century false out to be quite the opposite. Mark Briggs (2007) claims that the characteristics of the modern reporter have evolved due to the advent of new technological tools. According to him, todays journalists should be polyvalent, and be able to manipulate each type of given media. They should be trained to gibber their own photographs, be ready to video and audio record, or have editing knowledge for instance. Hence, only those h aving multi-tasking capabilities will be coveted and rewarded.Due to the pace at which new media mutate, the reporter should have the ability to renew himself as frequently as required. Quick adaption and versatility come as vital traits which shall be decisive while differentiating between a competent reporter and a less efficient one. According to Briggs (2007), the old adages claiming that a reporter should be good anywhere does not have its rationale. Today, he is expected to be able to cope with the constant technological and situational changes.The author come on argues that the advent of new media has led to a new form of journalistic model. As such, the contemporary reporter shall be a jack of all trades and master of none, a person who can write, shoot, edit, talk, and look good on camera with a competence that might not be majuscule tho good enough. (Briggs, 2007)Moreover, Bardoel and Deuze consider online journalism as being a fourth type of journalism, next to radio, television and printed reporting. They argue that the role of an online journalist is not limited to copying text onto websites, but that they also pay off their own subject, in the same way as would a mainstream reporter. For this reason, the researchers believe that journalism is believed to be rattling similar to any other class of journalism. (Bardoel Deuze, 2001)In addition, they sustain that online reporting comprises of characteristics which are usually inexistent in mainstream media. Interactivity, customisation of content, hypertextuality and multimedia systemlity are said to be the characteristics which contribute to the singularity of this type of journalism. Hence, the fundamental processes that is to say production, content and distribution, which were carried out using several medium, can now be done through only one platform. (Bardoel Deuze, 2001)Interactivity is described by brant Muirhead (2005) as being related to communication, participation and feedback . This feature is one of the major(ip) forces of online journalism. It resigns room for audiences to react to items published on the web. Be it in the form of comments, ratings, votes, pools, likes or shares for instance, readers have become reactive. Supporting this view, Briggs indicates that readers are no more passive. Instead, they wish to create, share and comment, and expect to be able to do this on news websites as well.It might be advantageous for the reporter to heighten interactivity. Firstly, enabling the comments options on new websites shall leave the door open for readers criticisms, which the journalist might take into account while writing his next piece. Moreover, readers oft wish to contact reporters to share their appreciation, or to provide news as sources. In this case, placing email links next to news stories might be helpful.On the other hand, Briggs encourages journalists to be proactive. He states that it is necessary to seek feedback on stories, before being published. This can be done by bankers bill a call to readers by sending emails to a list of authority respondents. In case ordinary comments are required for a tarradiddle, the author advices to send block emails to as many readers as possible to buzz off exploitable responses.In his study, Briggs further highlights the use of new media as contemporary tools. He states the case of John Cook, a well-known business reporter for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. The latter claimed being an intensive user of RSS feeds, and used them to track and obtain study in a more timely manner. (Briggs, 2007) This in turn, allowed him to publish information online very quickly.Journalism quality and productivityNew media has brought various sea captain fields, including journalism, to a brand new level. In the Mauritian context, through a survey, the National Computer Board (NCB) was able to generate a list of business sectors which recorded highest internet usage in the country. The l atter demonstrates that the terminus and communication sector features alongside those sectors which use the internet extensively, hence implying the direct involvement of the journalism sector. (ICT Usage Survey 2001 A survey on the ICT adoption of businesses in Mauritius, 2002)Depending on a media houses chromatography column policy, it might be willing to either lay emphasis on quality or quantity. By this statement, I do not mean to suggest that both(prenominal) of them cannot go about simultaneously, but that it is instead one of the most difficult and most challenging goal of an editor.Due to time constraints, short hear assignments and deadlines, reporters are often brought to choose between the two. For instance, in view of the come on submission deadline, a journalist might build a news item which is less qualitative, be it in the way it is organised, or in the chosen wording. The urge to submit news, added to the pressurising attempts of the editor in chief to make th ings go quicker undeniably have their role to play.Nowadays, the challenges knobbed in journalism practice are greater. In the past, competition did not come to the whole processes implicated in newsmaking. In comparison, the journalism models adopted in newsrooms by the end of the twentieth century demonstrate quite the opposite. The major focus has experienced a shift from quality to productivity.This phenomenon can be explained as being the result of rising material and labour costs, and the softness of firms to recover those costs. In addition, the advent of new technologies has also contributed to balancing the costs. By using less reporters along with new technological tools, media houses managements were able to mow man power, and make more efficient use of fewer journalists. (Picard, 1998) complaisant Networks as Journalistic ToolsThe use of social net running(a) sites as research tools has its importance in journalism, be it for the professional or the citizen writer. I have personally come across professionals who share their articles from their online news site onto their Facebook pages, or others who try to get in touch with contact persons through social networks. In addition, blogging among professionals of high calibre has also become a trend Rabin Bhujun, gibibyte Ahnee, or Raj Meetarban, own and regularly update theirs. Blogging journalism is free from editorial constraints, and professionals make use of it due to its flexibility.Nowadays, journalists report news in real time through Twitter. The Guardian claims that as of December 2011, and following the guidance of the shaper of chief justice, reporters could tweet the court proceedings without constraint. Tweeting is allowed to the public as well, but on the contrary, they will need to seek permission first. (DAVIES, C., 2011)Multimedia Journalism and ConvergenceAccording to authors, there are some terms which suck a vital part in contemporary journalism. Convergence and multimedia newsrooms are some of them. It has been argued that those two terms are closely linked, and that they very often seem to work in together. (Deuze, 2004)As far as multimedia journalism is concerned, it is said to have two definitions. Author Mark Deuze (2004) provides two situational descriptions in his study. Firstly, it is defined as the layout of a news degree on a website, which uses at least two types of media formats, like graphics, images, and music for instance. In the second place, the same definition applies but this time with different media such as website, email, radio, television, just to name a few.On the other hand, convergence poses itself as a collaborative participation between previously distinct newsrooms, or other parts of the contemporary media firm. It might be sharing news from other newsrooms, or collaborating on similar projects. (Deuze, 2004) go with Profile of Le Dfi Media GroupHaving launched itself in the media industry through the weekly Le Dfi Plus , the formerly small company turned into Le Dfi Media Group. As of date, the group is one of the most powerful media houses in Mauritius.Through the years the group has tried to diversify its trading operations by creating more newspapers, and launching its radio station in 2002. More recently, acute interest has been paid to the various functions provided by the web. following the commencement of its synergetic news website, the group aims at developing its own web television. This initiative is a truly innovative one in Mauritius, as it is the first formerly printed news media organisation to extend its field of activities trough audiovisual webcasting.Furthermore, it appears that the model proposed by Deuze (2004) perfectly fits the actual status of the firm. As per the authors description, the media house fits the portrayal of a fully integrated media newsroom. The specificities of this type of newsroom is that news reporters from print, broadcast and online media work in ha nd to produce content, and prepare story packages which are to be disseminated across all media. (Deuze, 2004)Similarly, journalists from the group are sometimes asked to produce media content which is not in their area of predilection. Press reporters are frequently called to make on the spot radio interventions, or journalists doing a specific news beat might be asked to collaborate in producing content for other beats as well. Hence journalism itself is perceived as a product, not the printed or broadcast news (Picard, 1998). As such, it appears that this dose of flexibility, mixed with cross media ownership and convergence form part of the corporate culture of the media house.The groups news website is another interesting asset. Despite being one of the last local media companies to launch one, its popularity remains undeniable. Each day, a considerable amount of responses is recorded, be it in terms of ratings, comments, shares or views. In contradiction to other firms, ledefim edia.info is the only news website to accommodate all its media content on the same platform. The website not only regroups texts from written newspapers, but also proposes videos and transcriptions of audio reports broadcast on the radio.Research MethodologyThe Research helpThe Research Methodology is a critical phase in a research. It provides an overview of the approach to be used, starting from theoretical groundwork to collection, analysis and entropy interpretation (Collins Hussey, 2003). No two research processes are exactly the same. Yet, they all follow a similar flow through the elementary procedures involved in academic investigations. As such a problem is to be defined, research objectives are to be set, research procedures intentioned, and data is to be assembled and analysed. (Burns Bush, 1998) chore DefinitionThe primary aim of this study is to analyse whether or not the use of new media is extensive in newsrooms. Despite the availability of necessary office tool s and equipments, the basis of this research shall be to obtain answers as to why new media are not fully exploited by reporters working individually on news items.Moreover, the importance of social platforms as working tools shall be assessed. In addition, the research will stress on the media houses news website, by determining whether the news authors make optimum use of the interactive functions available online.Research ObjectivesInitial Research ObjectivesThis list of objectives has been set precedent to the documentation process and before writing the literary productions review. These preset objectives are employed as starting points for the research, leaving room for a more in depth study later on. The list is as followsTo assess how reporters use new media in their daily routineTo delimitate the types of new media preferred by journalistsTo define the changes which new media have brought aboutTo determine the implications of using new mediaTo determine whether age is a deterrent for using new mediaTo determine whether different types of reporters use new media differentlyTo determine whether the use of different types of new media varies depending on news beat nifty Research ObjectivesFollowing the previous one, a new set of objectives has been built based on the dateings of the exploratory research made throughout the literature review. The new objectives are as followsTo assess the extent to which new media is used by reportersTo identify the different types of new media used, and identify the preferred onesTo bring out the reasons pushing reporters to make use of new mediaTo determine whether the organisational new media platforms at their avail are used fullyTo establish whether social platforms are helpful during the process of acquiring newsTo assess whether age influences the boilersuit utilisation of new mediaTo determine whether educational background impacts on the frequent use of new mediaResearch DesignA research design can be expl anatory, exploratory or descriptive (Yin, 1994). In view of the aims and objectives set, and provided that this study aims at obtaining answers which might be applicable to other situations than the ones already dealt with in this study, it can be assumed that the explanatory case study shall be the most appropriate research design. scheme DevelopmentFollowing the findings generated by the literature review, it can be deduced that (1) reporters seem to be unaware of the multiplicities of new media (2) the term new media is often confused with ICT or the internet (3) new media allow additional possibilities and functions which were not possible in the old school journalism days. guesswork 1H0 New media are used extensively by reportersH1 New media are not used extensively by reportersHypothesis 2H0 Different types of new media are used by journalistsH1 Different types of media are not used by journalistsHypothesis 3H0 Reporters have a preference for a certain type of new mediaH1 Rep orters do not have any preference for any type of mediaHypothesis 4H0 The organisational new media platforms are used fullyH1 The organisational new media platforms are not used fullyHypothesis 5H0 affable platforms are helpful during the process of acquiring newsH1 Social platforms are not helpful in the process of acquiring newsHypothesis 6H0 Age does influence the overall utilisation of new mediaH1 Age does not influence the overall utilisation of new mediaHypothesis 7H0 Educational background does impact on the general use of new mediaH1 Educational background does not impact on the general use of new mediaData Collection DesignRight from the origin of the research, it has been decided that the method of data collection would be questionnaire dissemination. As such, they would strain to be helpful as they shall be less time overwhelming than classic face to face interviews. Moreover, the questionnaire dissemination shall be done by email, and as printed fill out forms. The us e of both methods will allow more flexibility, for as reporters are constantly on the move, they might find it easier to fill in the forms online.